Professional suitability as a psychological prerequisite for improving the effectiveness of military-professional training (retraining) of military personnel

Cover Page

Cite item


The object of this work is to consider the problem of complementarity of the qualification readiness of candidates (applicants) for the future military specialty. Professional psychological selection of military personnel is considered as a psychological prerequisite for increasing the effectiveness of military professional training (retraining), as a way to overcome the discrepancy between the applicant (subject of military professional activity) and the requirements of the MAS. The analysis of dissertation research, scientific literature and regulatory documents made it possible to classify the types of human suitability for military professional activity into groups. The basis for the classification was the characteristics of the psychological qualities and innate personality traits necessary for the development of the military profession, as well as their psychodiagnostic tools. The factors of professional suitability are described in detail, the structural elements necessary for effective functioning in the profession are highlighted, by which it is possible to assess the professional suitability of a person. The composition and composition of the qualification psyche suitability of a person, which determine the profitability of technologies and algorithms (retraining) of applicants for vacancies of contract servicemen in the Russia Armed Forces, have been clarified. The definition of psychiatric suitability has been clarified. The professional suitability of an individual for military specialties is considered from the point of view of two basic tendencies to the knowledge of this phenomenon, the types of readiness of the individual for specialized activities are described. The specific characteristics of military professional training are revealed.

Full Text

The determination of the professional suitability of the subjects of military professional activity remains one of the prerequisites for increasing the effectiveness of the specialists training (retraining) system for the Russia Federation Armed Forces at the present stage of its development. The main goal is to identify the compliance of individual properties and personality traits with the requirements of modern military professions.

The increasingly complex content of military professional activity and psychodiagnostic tools actualize the presence of special qualities of officials that determine the professional readiness of applicants to perform functional duties in accordance with the chosen military specialty. Such qualities, in our opinion, are reliability and commitment, as well as awareness of the role of professional and psychological selection in improving the effectiveness of military professional activity.

As practice shows, the consideration of general professional interests and abilities of a person during the implementation of professional selection procedures is on the agenda as the most urgent issue of today's psychological diagnostics. In innovative realities, it is necessary to use creatively historical and pedagogical experience, preserve the best traditions of the national education system [10], and select effective psychodiagnostic tools for evaluating its results. At the moment, there are no algorithms for psychodiagnostics and methods that could unconditionally be recommended for professional psychodiagnostics and the selection of applicants for vacancies of contract servicemen in the Russia Armed Forces. Tt does not imply that similar technologies and algorithms are not to be created. However, the approach to this problem should presumably be different completely.

Presidential Executive Order No. 454 of July 30, 2018 is the starting point for the restoration and creation of the military-political work institute in the Armed Forces of the Russia Federation, which requires effective training of specialists for a special sphere of military professional activity. On November 22, 2021, the Russia Federation Ministry of Defense announced a new educational program 56.05.08 “Military-political work” launching in 2022 to train officers for military-political bodies in the universities under the Ministry of Defense. The content of the educational standard emphasizes the need to organize inclusive education [3, p. 9]. Consequently, this will require the creation of innovative approaches to considering the levels of professional suitability in the context of differentiation of military specialties, taking into account the provision of opportunities for higher military education for persons with disabilities. Considerable experience has already been accumulated in preparing for professional activities in the context of inclusion in higher educational institutions [5].

The purpose of our study is to analyze the types of human suitability for professional military activity, the system and essence of the personal psychophysiological characteristics of the subject, which are necessary in the interests of military professional training (retraining).

In the interests of conducting a comparative assessment and generalization of information about the methods of psychological diagnostics and technical means of Professional psychological selection (hereinafter referred to as PPS) used in Russia and in the armies abroad in the selection of applicants to serve in the Armed Forces on a contract basis, the authors of this work have taken a number of successive steps, including:

  • identification of categorical, conceptual and methodological apparatus of the modern multisystem of PPS;
  • definition of modern requirements for the classification of subspecies of quantifiable professional activity performed by military personnel, as well as a set of individual psychological qualities important for a particular profession required by this category of officials;
  • study of scientific articles and publications, periodicals, as well as websites (official and unofficial in the format of social networks) of both military and civilian orientation, in order to identify the main approaches, methods and technical means used in conducting professional orientation and professional psychological selection in the armies of the most developed countries of the world:
  • the USA, France, the United Kingdom, Germany and a number of others;
  • analysis of statutory and auxiliary documents, methods and manuals, as well as sets of requirements that are the regulatory and technological basis for the relevant application of the instrumental and interpretative apparatus of professional psychological selection, both in Russia and abroad;
  • conversations with officials of military commissariats, the study of statistical data, allowing with a certain degree of conventionality to assess the effectiveness of the tools used in the course of professional and psychological selection;
  • conducting an experimental study to test the impact of professional suitability on the effectiveness of military professional training (retraining of military personnel.

PPS in the Armed Forces of the Russia Federation as its main goal is to eliminate the differences between the structural components of the personality and the requirements of the military profession, to improve the quality of training (retraining) and the successful development of the chosen military specialty. Domestic psychological science considers professional and moral development as an important component of personal development.

The study of the content of the process of professional and moral development made it possible to identify the main criteria for assessing its effectiveness, based on the definition of its logic and structure [6].

To date, the importance of professional selection is caused by the continuous improvement of weapons and military equipment, the increasing cost of errors and a significant interest in building a system of interaction in military professional activities.

The subject of PPS research in the Russia Federation Armed Forces is the types of human suitability, which can be presented in two main ones. The first type of suitability is absolute - in the context of modern research, the requirements for such individual psychological and psychophysiological characteristics of the subject practically remain unchanged, due to the peculiarities of the central nervous system. Therefore, the main task of PPS is to diagnose an absolute profession, which is a set of methods that make possible a predictive indicator of a specialty’s and a person’s complementarity carried out in circumstances where responsible, healthy, efficient and accurately fulfilling standard tasks are required, with a high level of regulation of the sphere of emotions and will.

Consequently, the basis of primary professional diagnostics are certain objective features of the specialty: social, operating and organizational ones.

Suitability of the second type (relative) – is assessed according to the criteria that each subject with a healthy psyche meets. The need for this type of PPS arises when a soldier realizes his potential in military professional activities for an average of 10 years and during this time the necessary qualities do not manifest themselves at the level necessary and required by the profession. Therefore, some military personnel have an advantage due to the exceptional features that have already manifested themselves at the stage of spin probation [9; 11].

The analysis of numerous studies undertaken in the field of qualification screening shows that it has a rather limited scope, since it is necessary only for the most complex, specific varieties of military specialties. Undoubtedly, qualification screening is to be organized when cases of undoubted restrictions on specific professions and specialties frequently come into being [12]. Most of the military specialties and the activities of military personnel fall into this area.

In this regard, a brief analysis of the main aspects of the PPS implemented at the present stage of the Russia Federation Armed Forces development seems justified. In addition to the basic concepts of “relative” and “absolute” types of a person's suitability for a profession, professiology and acmeology reveals the essence of the basic category that characterizes the dependence of the effectiveness of professional activity on the individual psychological characteristics of the subject of activity. Such a concept at the present stage is “professional suitability”, which is considered in two aspects: the first is “professional suitability as an obvious property of individual psychological and physiological data” of the subject of activity that meet the requirements of the profession.

At the present stage of development of military psychodiagnostics, it is no longer enough to study the mental and psychophysiological characteristics of the subject that meet the requirements of the MAS. Therefore, the second aspect reveals the features of comprehension of professional suitability from the standpoint of including in its content such criteria that reveal the anthropometric, medical, social characteristics of a person. [1; 7; 11].

Thus, the comprehension of professional suitability from these points of view allows us to consider it as professional psychological suitability.

Nevertheless, taking into account scientific approaches to the analysis of the essence of professional suitability (integral and system-structural approaches), it is necessary to specify the meaning of the categories “professional suitability” and “professional psychological suitability” considered by us.

Professional suitability is considered by us as an integrative property of the individual, which includes the psychophysiological characteristics of the subject of military professional activity (physical, anthropometric, physiological, social, etc.) that meet the requirements of the MAS for the successful performance of tasks for their intended purpose [4; 12].

Professional suitability is structured by psychological suitability, but from the standpoint of designating it as a set of adequate exceptional differential psychophysiological characteristics of the subject from the standpoint of their compliance with the requirements of the military profession (taking into account the specific classification of military professional activity).

Thus, professional psychological suitability acts as a psychological component that must be taken into account, especially when selecting applicants for the successful development of the MAS, including in extreme conditions.

The importance of understanding the structure of individual differences for choosing the appropriate profession (according to the well-known E.A. Klimov’s classification) leads to the emergence of its own concepts for determining professional suitability in each scientific school (for example, the construction of a professiogram in the Moscow and Leningrad scientific schools in the 70-80s of the twentieth century). Consequently, there is also a system of psychodiagnostic tools and the corresponding terminological apparatus (psychogram, professiogram, etc.).

If the military specialty imposes requirements on the applicant, taking into account his physical, physiological, anthropometric, psychosocial characteristics, then the structure of professional suitability will be either single-order (horizontal structure of professional suitability) or hierarchized (vertical structure of professional suitability), taking into account the principle of ontogenetic development of the psyche from individual (innate) properties to socio-psychological and professionally significant.

The determinants that determine the professional suitability of conscripts and applicants to military educational institutions were investigated by K. M. Gurevich in his writings [12].

He identified and described the main structural parts that allow you to give an estimate to the subject so that he brings maximum efficiency in his professional activity:

  1. Predisposition, talents for a specific specialty. Human abilities that equip the corresponding qualities are known under the term professionally significant (important) qualities (PIQ).
  2. Determining the maximum success of professional functions of cognition, qualifications and professional skills.
  3. Reasons for actions that cause the intention to work.

Aseev V.G. in his works expresses the opinion that the strong-willed qualities of a person, spiritual attitude to work, disposition and readiness to perform work are of great importance [1].

The final indicators of the subject's readiness to perform his professional functionality are:

  1. the success and efficiency of functioning in the specialty and in the profession as a whole;
  2. self-satisfaction from professional activity and satisfaction with its results.

Based on the characteristics of independent variables, professional suitability for the performance of special types of activities can be interpreted as the effectiveness of assimilation and mastering of knowledge, and then the formation of appropriate skills and abilities of the functionality of this military specialty, and if we analyze the totality of subjective signs (cross-coefficients) - as self-satisfaction from professional activity and satisfaction with its results. A candidate who has these standards will be considered to meet the requirements of the specialty and suitable for the performance of professional functionality [8; 12].

We see that the shown structural elements of the candidate's professional suitability are in proportionate and harmonious connection with the facets of the highest skill, previously described by Markova A.K.:

  • the state of the motivational sphere of the subject's professional activity;
  • the state of the procedural area of the subject's professional activity [9].

To detail and clarify the structure and characteristics of the professional suitability of candidates for the chosen specialty, a content analysis of research on this topic was carried out.

The structure of the suitability (psychological and professional) of the subject for the performance of the functionality of the chosen profession includes:

  1. Qualification-relevant conditions.
  2. Professional motivation.
  3. Special preparedness.
  4. Qualification intentions.
  5. Qualification sufficiency.
  6. Job satisfaction [8].

The combination of psychophysiological references of an individual (innate and acquired), which affect the effectiveness of understanding and performing specific work in the specialty, in most studies has the definition of “professionally important qualities” (hereinafter referred to as PIQ) [9; 11; 12].

“Professional abilities”, according to researchers, are the features of the personal psychophysiological events of the subject of labor to effectively understand and perform specific work in the specialty during the entire duration of work, taking into account the personal development of the individual and the transformations of labor evaluation criteria [9; 11].

Performing professional duties, the individual is based on the acquired specialized skills and abilities, i.e. professional operations, reduced to a predetermined degree of automaticity.

The meaning and functions performed by the motivational sphere of an individual participating in professional activity are described in detail in the studies of Russia psychologists V.G. Aseev, A.K. Markova and others. The core of the professional attitude is motivation as “a need that has been objectified” [9].

Qualification intentions are the fourth component of professional psychic suitability. Psychologists M.I. Dyachenko and L.A. Kandybovich, analyzed in detail the necessary elements for the formation of readiness for action in the profession [2]. These elements are knowledge, abilities, skills, as well as specific motives and certain abilities.

Subjective human satisfaction can be increased by collective complicity in service, work, work, involvement in society, empathy with such individuals. It is generally recognized that usually the relationship between people, respect, attention to his work (service), a comfortable microclimate in the workplace, and remuneration for it bring satisfaction to an individual in the profession and service. The lack of consumption in the profession is manifested in various defense reactions, such as various forms of compensation, apathy, tension and frustration, fatigue. The development of these components above the average level is an indicator of the individual's readiness for the chosen profession.

In addition to the markers and factors of suitability for professional activity described above, it is possible to isolate some mini-groups of indicators that are also intended to make judgments about the category of professional suitability of an individual for a particular specialty. They include the corresponding verified symptoms: maximum productivity; excellent condition of the results of work (reduction of defective products and incorrect actions, coincidence of indicators and results of the established parameters); adherence to the developed norms and technologies; safety of working conditions for the individual.

To test the effectiveness of the tools used in the course of professional and psychological selection, we conducted an experimental study. At the first stage, the data of the professional and psychological selection of candidates enrolled in 2021 at one of the faculties of the academy were analyzed. To assess the levels of development of professionally important qualities of candidates, the Eysenck methodology, the Standardized Personality Research Methodology were used; assessment of intellectual abilities was carried out using the “Universal Set of Psychophysiological Techniques” (a block of seven test materials aimed at studying cognitive mental processes); the level of neuropsychic stability and the development of communicative qualities were assessed using the multi-level personality questionnaire “Adaptability” (3 and 4 structural levels), “Prognoz-2” methodology; the level of behavioral regulation, the degree of orientation to generally accepted moral norms of behavior were studied using the methods “Assessment of the structure of temperament”, “Military professional motivation” and “Communicative and organizational inclinations”.

The identified quantitative ratios of the levels of development of professionally important qualities are presented in Tables 1, 2 and 3.


Table 1

Level of development of professionally important qualities


(% of the total number of researched)

Level of neuropsychic stability

Level of communicative abilities

Level of adaptive abilities

Level of moral normativity

















Table 2

Level of development of cognitive mental processes (general level of intelligence)

The level of development of mental qualities

 (% of the total number of researched)

























Table 3

Level of behavioral regulation

Social ergicity (level of social activity, involvement in the process of activity, level of tone, mental activity)

(% of the total number of researched)







Social plasticity (the level of readiness to enter into social contacts, to the selection of forms of communication and other social interaction)








Social emotionality (emotional response to successes and failures, attitude to the results of activities, self-confidence)








Social adequacy (adequate assessment of one's behavior, self-criticism, sincerity in answers)









At the second stage, to assess the impact of professional suitability on the effectiveness of military professional training (retraining) of military personnel, we analyzed the academic performance of students based on the results of passing sessions in semesters 1 and 2 and their official activities (service, personal discipline) according to commanders.

Academic performance is chosen by us as a marker of the success of training (retraining), as it is an indicator reflecting the degree of coincidence of the actual and planned result. In educational practice, assessments (marks) are used everywhere, they are a convenient tool with which you can evaluate and compare the individual achievements of individual students; The assessment received by the student is determined not only by his knowledge, skills, skills, but also by his attitude to learning, behavior, his educational and social activity.

Students who passed the winter and summer sessions were well and perfectly distributed in the following percentage: 69% had a high level of development of professionally important qualities, a high level of intelligence; 28% – the average level of development of professionally important qualities; 3% low level of development of professionally important qualities. 74% of students with an average and high level of development of professionally important qualities, a high level of intelligence did not have penalties and were characterized positively in the service. In practical terms, it is not often possible to achieve the results of forecasting professional suitability that coincide with the intended effectiveness of training (retraining) or performance of official duties: more than 65-75 percent. As a consequence, further improvement of the tools used in the course of professional and psychological selection is required.

All of the above allows us to assert that consideration of the problem of complementarity of the qualification readiness of candidates (applicants) for the future military specialty, their training (retraining) in military specialties is a necessary and most important condition for the effectiveness of their military professional activities.


About the authors

Alexander A. Karavanov

Military Academy

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8103-0807

Candidate of Psychological Sciences

Russian Federation, Voronezh

Igor Y. Ustinov

Military Academy

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4091-3894

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences

Russian Federation, Voronezh

Anzhela A. Len

Military Academy

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3606-8130

Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences

Russian Federation, Voronezh


  1. Aseev, V.G. (1995). Motivacionnaya regulyaciya povedeniya lichnosti: avtoref. dis. … dokt. psixol. nauk. M., 45. (in Russ.).
  2. D`yachenko, M.I. (1978). Psixologicheskie problemy` gotovnosti k deyatel`nosti. Minsk: BGU, 182. (in Russ.).
  3. Federal`ny`j gosudarstvenny`j obrazovatel`ny`j standart vy`sshego obrazovaniya – specialitet po special`nosti 56.05.08. Voenno-politicheskaya rabota ot «16» noyabrya 2020 g. (in Russ.).
  4. Gurevich, K.M. (1970). Professional`naya prigodnost` i osnovny`e svojstva nervnoj sistemy` chelo veka. M.:Nauka, 272. 56. (in Russ.).
  5. Ibragimova, L.A., & Novikova, E.A. (2019). Podgotovka bakalavrov v professional`noj deyatel`nosti v inklyuzivnom obrazovanii: teoreticheskij aspekt. Vestnik Nizhnevartovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 4, 78-83. (in Russ.).
  6. Ibragimova, L.A., & Mexdieva, I.D. (2019). K voprosu o nravstvennom razvitii studentov v period professional`noj podgotovki v obrazovatel`nom uchrezhdenii. In Social`noe i pedagogicheskoe obrazovanie: vektory` razvitiya (pp. 20-23). (in Russ).
  7. Kulagin, B.V. (1994). Osnovy` professional`noj psixodiagnostiki. L.: Medicina, 216. (in Russ.).
  8. Marishhuk, V.L. (2021). Kriterii professional`noj prigodnosti v otbore / Xrestomatiya po inzhenernoj psixologii. M.: Vy`sshaya shkola, 258. (in Russ.).
  9. Markova, A.K. (1996). Psixologiya professionalizma. M.: Mezhdunarodny`j gumanitarny`j fond «Znanie», 312 s. (in Russ.).
  10. Mekhdieva, I.D. (2019). Professional'no-nravstvennoe razvitie kak pedagogicheskaya kategoriya. In Kul'tura, nauka, obrazovanie: problemy i perspektivy: Materialy VII Vserossiiskoi nauchnoprakticheskoi konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Nizhnevartovsk, 395-398. (in Russ).
  11. Professional`ny`j psixologicheskij otbor kandidatov v voenno-uchebny`e zavedeniya Ministerstva Oborony` Rossijskoj Federacii. M.: MO RF. 1994, 167. (in Russ.).
  12. Ustinov I.Yu., Karavanov A.A. (2017). Metodiki i texnicheskie sredstva psixologicheskoj diagnostiki v sisteme professional`nogo psixologicheskogo otbora voennosluzhashhix Rossii i zarubezhny`x stran: sravnitel`ny`j analiz. Voronezh: Izdatel`stvo RITM, 332. (in Russ.).

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies