No 1 (2022)

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Full Issue

Plant ecology

Microbiological features of the salt lakes of the Kulunda lake system

Solovyanova N.A., Emelyanova E.K., Andreeva I.S.


The object of the study was the water and bottom sediments of the Bolshoye Yarovoye and Burlinskoye salt lakes located in the Kulunda steppe lowland and having recreational value. The aim of this work is to study the antibacterial and anti-candidiasis properties of water and bottom sediments of lakes in the Kulunda lake region in the context of their ecological state. The main factors affecting the basins of lakes B. Yarovoe and Burlinskoe are the intensification of the recreational load due to the development of domestic tourism, the activities of industrial enterprises, and, as a consequence, the washout of pollutants, the extraction and transportation of salt (in Lake Burlinskoe) and the almost complete extraction of silt mud. (in Lake B. Yarovoe), plowing of adjacent territories. No causative agents of infectious diseases were found in the water and bottom sediments, and the total microbial count is about 102 CFU / ml. The predominant group of microorganisms found on agar culture media are non-spore-bearing bacteria. The water of the salty lake B. Yarovoe, filtered from microorganisms, possesses inhibitory properties in relation to all studied 14 gram-positive and gram-negative test strains of microorganisms, and the water of Lake Burlinskoye – in relation to nine strains: gram-negative bacteria Salmonella sonnei 32, Klebsiella pneumonia В-4894, Рseudomonas mirabilis 160205, Serratia marcescens d, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli 6645 ATCC 25922, gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Mycobacterium smegmatis GK and regarding the causative agent of candidiasis Candida albicans 620. It was also shown that pure cultures of spore-forming bacteria isolated from the water and bottom sediments of the studied lakes also have antagonistic activity. The ecological stability of lake ecosystems, in spite of anthropogenic transformation and climatic changes affecting the water and salt regime, is based on biogenic processes that provide resistance to microorganisms introduced from outside, including pathogenic ones, and their elimination.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):4-15
pages 4-15 views

Algae, polyporales fungi and insects – xylophages of the Smolny Island natual reserve (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia)

Skorobogatova O.N., Kuchumov M.S., Vecher P.S.


Smolny Island is a specially protected natural area of regional importance aimed to preserve a unique natural ecosystem of typical floodplain landscapes of the latitudinal section of the Ob River. The purpose of this research is to obtain primary data on the species composition and state of algological, polyporale communities and insects-xylophages of the Smolny Island natural reserve. The standard algological, mycological and entomological research methods were used. The original studies results for several components of the ecosystem are presented for the first time. The composition, structure, occurrence of freshwater algae, forest, polyporale communities and forest insects pests were investigated. The freshwater algocenoses of the island have a typical regional composition, in summer there is a tendency to cenosis characteristic of the region's swamps (diatom-euglena viridis type) in autumn there's diatom, with low occurrence of species. An increased saprobity of the studied waters was detected. In total, 12 insects – xylophages species of the Agaricomycetes class were found in forest communities (coniferous, floodplain, small-leaved cenosis), with the richest species community in the test plot of small-leaved forest and the least variety in the coniferous one. No great risk for the development of a mass insects-xylophages area in the test plots was revealed, but the constant monitoring of the forest stock of the Smolny Island natural reserve is necessary to prevent the development of invasions and preserve the biodiversity of the island. The research results can be recommended as special diagnostic methods for tracking the diversity and condition of island communities.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):16-28
pages 16-28 views

About pests and diseases of some magnolia species in the Absheron conditions

Askerova P.S.


The article examines the reproduction, frequency, distribution, density, preventive measures against pests of some Magnolia species on a scientific basis. Pests belonging to the species of this genus have been observed to be Icerya purchasi Mack, 1878, Ceroplastes sinensis Guer., Tetranychus urticae Koch., Helix pomatia Lin., 1758 and Pseudomonas syringae van Hall 1904. On the basis of phytosanitary monitoring, route observations and stationary examinations of magnolia plants grown in the experimental fields of the Institute of Dendrology in Absheron Peninsula (2020-2021), plant samples infected with pests and pathogens were collected and systematically analyzed. As a result of the monitoring of pests, magnolias were first discovered in Absheron: Icerya purchasi, Ceroplastes sinensis, Tetranychus urticae, Helix pomatia. Some bioecological features of the dangerous larvae of Icerya purchasi and Ceroplastes sinensis have been revealed. For the first time, a number of promising insecticides against their larvae have been selected. The data on the experimental work on the selection of drugs and their concentration as the most effective measure to control pest species are presented. The reason for the weakening of plants, and sometimes their death, is a complex of factors of negative impact: biotic – harmful arthropods and damage by various diseases; abiotic – unfavorable climatic conditions; anthropogenic – violation of the soil cover and natural herbaceous vegetation, insufficient and untimely care of plants due to the limited funds allocated for this purpose.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):29-36
pages 29-36 views

The influence of the hydrothermal regime on the electrical resistance precompiling complex tissues of the trunk of a silver birch ( Betula pendula roth.) in the conditions of oil sludge pollution

Kurilo J.A., Grigoriev A.I.


The study of the life processes of woody plants by the electrometric method under the influence of adverse factors, including oil sludge, serves as one of the adequate methodological approaches to assessing the state of forest biogeocenoses. The purpose of the study was to study the influence of the hydrothermal regime of the air environment in terms of sludge contamination of the soil by the amount of electrical resistance precompiling complex tissues of the trunks of silver birch. The object of the study is hanging birch trees (Betula pendula Roth) growing in the basin of buffer ponds of JSC Gazpromneft ‒ ONPZ (Omsk). The research area is the central forest-steppe of the south of Western Siberia. Comparisons of the experience options were carried out according to the Student's criteria. The dependence of the electrical resistivity of the precambial tissue complex (PCT) of the birch trunk under different conditions of atmospheric moisture in the conditions of oil-sludge contamination of soils was studied. A close dependence of the change in the value of the electrical resistance (ES) of the PKT on the hydrothermal regime of the air environment in both the control and experimental groups was revealed. According to the results of our long-term studies, it can also be noted that the duration of a significant negative effect of oil sludge (at the given concentration) on the ES of birch trees in the conditions of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia continues to manifest itself for eleven years (τфакт > τ0.5). The obtained results can be used in screening studies of the state of forest biogeocenoses and in planning and organizing biorecultivation activities in the territory of sanitary protection zones of oil refineries and in areas of oil production and transportation. The results of the studies were processed by standard methods of variational statistics, correlation, regression and variance univariate analyses using the Statistica 10 package.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):37-44
pages 37-44 views

Animal ecology

Investigation of the responses of the Eisenia fetida worms when copper and zinc nanoparticles are introduced into the habitat

Vershinina I.A., Lebedev S.V.


In our study, we chose Eisenia fetida worms as the object of study, which were cultivated on artificial soil, where Zn and Cu NPs were added at doses of 0; 100; 250; 500 and 1000 mg/kg dry soil. The survival rate of worms when exposed to an artificial substrate in the control was 100%. 20% decrease in survival was recorded when Zn NPs were introduced at a dose of 500 mg/kg of dry soil on the 14th day. The survival rate with the introduction of Cu NP was 90-100%, at the same time the lowest survival rate (20%) was noted at a concentration of 500 mg/kg on day 14. In the course of studies, the dose-dependent nature of the accumulation of copper and zinc in Eisenia fetida was established. At a dose of 1000 mg/kg Zn NPs, zinc was excreted from the body of worms at a rate of 3.9 mg/kg/day and decreased with an increase in the dose of introduced Zn NPs. Excretion of copper from the body of worms occurred at a concentration of 500 mg/kg of Cu NP on day 14. At the same time, the rate of elimination from the body of the worm increased with an increase in the concentration of metal in the soil (by 34-53%). The maximum bioaccumulation was recorded with the addition of 100 mg/kg of Cu NP. Thus, on artificial soil, the accumulation of copper and zinc was a dose-dependent parameter. The worm's body is capable of accumulating zinc when NPs are added up to 500 mg / kg, inclusive, with subsequent excretion into the external environment at a concentration of 1000 mg / kg of soil. At a concentration of 500 mg/kg of Cu NPs on artificial soil, the removal of metal from the body of the worm on the 14th day was noted. The maximum bioaccumulation of Cu NPs was recorded upon the addition of 100 mg/kg Cu NP.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):45-54
pages 45-54 views

Features of insect species diversityin the forest plantings disturbed by anthropogenic impact

Belitskaya M.N., Gribust I.R., Alferova G. ., Bakradze N.Y., Prilipko N.I.


Insects are universal objects for monitoring biogeocenoses. Wide distribution, close connection with various components of the environment and the abundance of individual species in disturbed ecosystems, the variety of responses to anthropogenic impacts, quick response to changes in the quality of the environment, as well as there is a clear correlation between the level of exposure and the degree of manifestation of the response time they make it possible to use insects as indicators. Green spaces are an important environmental protection and environmental-forming factor of the urban environment, which determines changes in the composition and structure of entomological complexes. At the same time, plantings of different types and environmental categories are in different conditions in relation to air pollution, that what determines the features of biodiversity and the balance of the population structure. Among the most significant among them are the exhaust gases of motor vehicles, various chemicals used to combat icing of the roadway in winter, as well as the selective destruction of weed vegetation within the decorative design of highways, etc. The need to study the responses to environmental pollution, manifested in changes in the composition and structure of entomofauna, the dynamics of the number and the change in the role of individual species in the transformed territories determines the direction of this study. The analysis of insect responses at the species level allows us to identify the consequences of the transformation of biocenoses, changes in faunal abundance, the structure of dominance and, as a result, determines the stability of ecosystems.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):55-64
pages 55-64 views

Human ecology

Photoperiodic chronotype stability in students of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area – Yugra and Vladikavkaz

Ragozin O.N., Schalamova E.Y., Datieva F.S., Pogonysheva I.A.


The aim of the work is to establish the peculiarities of the organization of various aspects of life in the dynamics of the winter/summer seasons among students studying in the conditions of the photoperiod of the northern region (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area – Yugra) and the temperate climatic zone (Vladikavkaz). In the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area, among students of both sexes, the proportion of persons with evening chronotypes was higher than in Vladikavkaz. Among thenorthernyoung men, there were no persons with a definite morning chronotype, and among the Vladikavkaz students there was noone with a definite evening chronotype; in the southern region, the share of “larks” was higher. In the dynamics of winter/summer in all groups, an increase in the proportion of “larks” was found, less pronounced in young men. Among the students of Vladikavkaz in both seasons, young men predominated among morning chronotypes, the percentage of persons with an arrhythmic chronotype was higher among young women. The values of the index of photoperiodic stability, in general, characterize the chronotype of the examined students as rigid. In the organization of life in the social group of students, social generators of rhythm prevail over natural factors.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):65-72
pages 65-72 views

Estimation of health risk associated with consumption of groundwater of apscheronia propinqua at a Prielton region

Novikov D.S., Frolova J.D.


In modern conditions, health risk assessment activities have become the leading direction in the analysis of potential threats to the health of the population living on the territory of a certain hydrogeochemical province. Based on the analysis of the reporting documentation of state reports in the field of consumer protection and human well-being, as well as ecology and natural resources of the Volgograd region, a priority list of pollutants was selected, due to the chemical nature of the aquifers of the Volgograd Trans-Volga region. The health risk assessment was carried out on the basis of 19 samples taken from non-centralized water supply sources in the Elton rural settlement using the methodology presented in P In this study, for the first time for groundwater in the Volgograd region, a risk-based approach was applied to assess the effect of dissolved toxicants on the health status of the population. The greatest contribution to the formation of a non-carcinogenic risk to the health of adults and children is made by oral exposure to sodium and nitrates. The cardiovascular system is the main critical system that is jointly affected by these toxicants. The total risk of non-carcinogenic hazard (HI) was HI = 0.5262 for adults and 1.2366 for children (taking into account standard exposure factors). The excess of the maximum permissible concentrations of the most significant in the formation of an unfavorable sanitary and ecological situation is primarily due to the geochemical nature of sodium-chloride-sulfate underground waters in the southeast of the Volgograd region, as well as irrational agriculture and the lack of zones of sanitary protection of water sources. The identified risks should be taken into account when exploring new groundwater resources and organizing water supply systems on the territory of the Elton rural settlement. The data obtained are planned to be used in the development of recommendations for the procedure for organizing water treatment in remote arid regions of the Volgograd region in the context of determining priority treatment facilities for sources of non-centralized water supply. Prospects for further research are related to the determination of carcinogenic risks formed by natural heavy metals and agricultural toxins associated with irrational agriculture.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):73-81
pages 73-81 views

Ecology and nature management

Environmental assessment of the copper content in the soil cover in the South of the Tyumen Region

Sindireva A.V., Kotchenko S.G., Elizarov O.I.


The article presents data on the content of copper in the plow horizon of the main types of soils of the Tyumen region used in agricultural production, and determines the relationship of its distribution with the main physical and chemical indicators of soils (humus, pH, macroelements). To analyze the geochemical features of the microelement distribution in the soil cover, field, laboratory, and statistical research methods were used. When summarizing and analyzing the material, we used our own research and materials from the reports of the FGBU GSAS “Tyumenskaya” on the survey of arable soils in the Tyumen region. In all studied types of soils in the south of the Tyumen region, excess of the permissible concentrations of copper is not observed. The content of mobile forms of copper, depending on the type and subtype of soils, varies in the range from 0.15 to 0.25 mg/kg, the total content ranges from 10 to 18 mg/kg. The ratio of the mobile form to the gross content is from 1.05 to 2.29%. A reliable relationship between mobile copper and its total content has not been established. A close correlation has been established between the total content of copper and mobile forms of potassium, humus and the pH level. For mobile forms of copper, there is an average correlation with the content of humus in soils. The relationship between the mobile forms of copper and phosphorus has not been established. The data obtained can be used in environmental monitoring as initial, background reporting points in assessing the degree of pollution of agrocenoses, as well as in predicting the effect of copper in the soil-plant system in the south of the Tyumen region.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):82-90
pages 82-90 views

Development of one- and dicotyledic plants on reclaimed oil-contaminated alluvial turf soils

Utombaeva A.A., Petrov A.M., Zainulgabidinov E.R., Ignatiev Y.A.


Laboratory chronic experiments have determined the effect of the content of petroleum products (PP) in reclaimed alluvial turf heavy loamy and light loamy soil on the growth, yield of green mass and the development of the root system of spring wheat and seed peas. High residual PP content in reclaimed soil resulted in increased seed germination time, with no effect on germination. When growing wheat on reclaimed alluvial turf heavy loamy soil, the toxic effect was manifested only in the early stages of plant development in a variant containing 16.9 g/kg of PP. In the alluvial turf light loamy soil version containing 21.8 g/kg of pollutant, inhibition of plant growth was observed throughout the experiment. In chronic experiments for growing peas on heavy coal soil containing 16.9 g/kg of PP, on light coal soil containing 11.7 g/kg and higher, plant growth inhibition was observed, with a tendency to increase the toxic effect towards the end of the growing experience. Oil contaminants in concentration up to 11-12 g/kg in reclaimed alluvial turf heavy and light-coal soils do not affect the yield of green wheat mass, in concentration 9.7 g/kg and higher inhibit the growth of pea plants, lead to a decrease in the yield of their green mass. The oxidation efficiency of petroleum products when growing plants on reclaimed alluvial turf soil did not exceed 37% and was determined by the initial concentration of pollutant. The presence of PP in the soil led to a change in the structure of the root system of the plants being grown. Tested plants when cultivated on heavy soils are more resistant to negative PP. The findings show that sown peas are more sensitive to the presence of PP in reclaimed soil.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):91-101
pages 91-101 views

Environmentally significant indicators of mountain meadow soils in Azerbaijan

Talibi S.M., Hasanova T.A.


The most widespread soils in the Republic of Azerbaijan are mountain-meadow soils. The aim of the research was a comprehensive and comparative study of morphodiagnostic parameters, physical and chemical properties, as well as the biochemical activity of natural and anthropogenically modified biogeocenoses of the Kedabey region. The area has unique flora and fauna. Surroundings of the villages Gara Murad, Kichik Garamurad, Saratovka and others were investigated. The research was carried out on virgin and cultivated lands in villages. The degree of mineralization of the rivers Zayamchay and Chekhrichay ranges from 140 to 430 mg. The groundwater level in these areas exceeds 2 m, salinization processes are active. A herbarium was collected and the floristic composition of natural cenoses was determined. Invertebrates were also collected and the dominant composition of the fauna of natural cenoses was determined. Of the saprophages in these biocenoses, woodlice of the genus Hemilepisthus and Armadillidium are widely used. The most intensive decomposition of the remains of cereal vegetation is observed in the soil of the coastal strip (65.9%). In the natural cenosis, the rate of destruction of saltwort and salt-tolerant grass vegetation reaches 44.3%. The main role in the destruction of plant remains is played by a group of saprphages, which actively use plant litter. The decomposing material reaches its final stage of microbiological transformation. The duration and amount of CO2 in different soil horizons were also studied. It has been established that with increasing depth, the amount of carbon dioxide decreases. The hydrolytic activity of invertase and urease enzymes in the studied soils can be assessed as very weak. Comparative results of all these agrochemical studies helped to develop virgin soils in agriculture on the plains and achieve high productivity.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):102-107
pages 102-107 views

On methodology of comprehensive assessment of ecological state of Ufa city

Kholukhoyeva A.D., Khaziakhmetov R.M.


In Russia, all the regions are initially considered economically and socially complex systems that develop along the path of a huge set of conditions and processes arising in the internal and external environment. In my opinion, these types of processes should include limitations and resource opportunities, various changes in society, areas of development of the institutional area of the formation of environmental factors, processes and phenomena in the production of non-material, as well as, most importantly, of a material nature. It should be noted that the main and most important basis of the material base studied by me is the economic structure of the regional ecological system of the region, which to a greater extent characterizes stability and its ability to dynamically develop, improve the region as a whole, and its individual territories in particular, through the identification of the input flow and the values and results obtained at the output. It is important to focus attention on the fact that all economic and ecological systems in the process of their development at various stages of evolution are predominantly of the inertial type, which indicates the lack of development of a scientifically based system characterizing these states. In this regard, there are many global issues, both from a scientific point of view and from a practice-oriented direction. Thus, the author in this article examines the issues of methodological analysis and critical criteria explanation of the methodology of comprehensive assessment of the ecological state of the city of Ufa of the Republic of Bashkortostan in its close relationship with economic systems and structures.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):108-116
pages 108-116 views

Selenium in the soils of the Taganay national park and the Tyumen state reserve

Boyev V.A., Sindireva A.V., Boev V.V., Burmistrova A.S.


Selenium is the most important trace element in the body of plants, animals and humans. In this regard, the study of selenium in soils and vegetation of territories unaffected by anthropogenic impact, which are specially protected natural territories (protected areas), is of great theoretical and practical importance. The Tyumen State Nature Reserve and the Taganay National Park were chosen as the study areas. In these territories, the gross content of selenium in the upper horizon of soils (0-20 cm) was studied. The analysis of selenium content in plants was carried out in the Taganay National Park for the three most common plant species of the herbaceous tier in the study area – cane vine (Calamagrostis arundinacea), common sour (Oxalis acetosella L.), common blueberry (Vaccinium myrtíllus L). The plants were selected at the same sites as the soil samples. The selenium content in soil and plants was determined in the branch of FSBI “TsLATI in the Ufa region” in the Tyumen region by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry using a Varian 720 – ES spectrometer. Despite the significant biogeochemical differences of the studied protected areas, the selenium content in the soils of the studied territories does not differ significantly and ranges from 0.01 to 0.09 mg/kg, with average values of 0.05±0.02 and 0.062±0.02 mg/kg, respectively, in the soils of the Taganay National Park and the Tyumen State Reserve. The studied soils of protected areas are selenium-deficient. This may be one of the reasons for the lack of selenium in the soil–plant system. The total content of selenium has a pronounced relationship with the humus content in the soils of the Tyumen State Reserve and with the level of acidity in the soils of the Taganay National Park. The selenium content in the most common herbaceous plants of the Taganay National Park varies within insignificant limits and does not differ significantly, both in species composition and in relation to functional zones. The generalized selenium content in plants is at the lower limit of availability (0.051-0.054 mg/kg of dry matter). According to the calculated absorption coefficient, these plants for the accumulation of selenium belong to groups of weak capture. The low content of selenium in the studied plants of the Taganay National Park is associated with a shortage of this gross content of the element in soils and, apparently, with a low content of its water-soluble forms.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):117-127
pages 117-127 views

Ecological and taxonomic structure of winter algocoenosis in the rivers of the Sevastopol region

Didenko I.N., Didenko N.A., Skorobogatova O.N., Storchak T.V.


The paper considers the ecological and taxonomic structure of the winter algocoenosis of the Chernaya, Kacha, and Belbek rivers within the territory of the city of Sevastopol. The results of studies were obtained on 30 chemical and physical parameters of surface water samples during the period of algological sampling. The collection of field material (phytoplankton, algae in fouling, on various substrates immersed in water) and its processing was carried out according to the methods generally accepted in algological practice. The diagnostic features, as well as the similarities and differences in the species diversity of algae, have been determined. The studies carried out show that the studied algocoenosis are characterized in winter period by a rich species composition, with a significant predominance of diatoms. The algae found in the studied rivers are indicators of water purity, and their occurrence activity and abundance can indicate that the content of organic matter in the waters of the Belbek and Kacha rivers is lower than in the Chernaya river. This is confirmed by the presence of algae – xenosaprobionts in the waters of the Belbek and Kacha rivers, which are indicators of clean, not polluted, with organic substances water.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2022;57(1):128-135
pages 128-135 views

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