No 2 (2016)



Khasanova R.F., Shalygina (Safiullina) R.R., Dubovik I.Y.


The present paper studies ecological and taxonomic characteristics and structure of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses (CAC) of ordinary black soil used for growing legumes and cereals as phytoameliorants in Trans-Ural Republic of Bashkortostan. The study is based on classical algology methods. CAC analysis of soils used for growing phytoameliorants allowed identifying 134 cyanoprocaryote and algae taxa belonging to 70 genera, 36 families, 15 orders and 9 classes of five groups, including Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta. With higher air temperatures and lack of moisture, the amount of euglenophytes drops completely, whereas the amount of yellow-green algae and diatoms declines. The analysis revealed negative correlation between CAC biodiversity and medium air temperature (r = - 0.99). With higher air temperatures, the amount of amp-forms drops and the range of CAC ecobiomorphs is less diverse. When comparing CAC ecobioforms, we revealed a change in soil composition typical for succession in case the soil is used for growing legumes and cereal grasses. The head end of the spectrum is dominated by CF-forms, and the number of hydrofilious and sciophiolous X-forms increases. The P-form algae, oftern related to the areas of disturbed land, are displaced. Ch-form ubiquists remain their leading position in the spectrum. The soil used for growing perennial legumes had 18 species of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, the soil used for cereals had 13 species correspondingly. The total number of species revealed in soil used for growing legumes is almost 2 times more than the one revealed in soil used for cereals. Apparently, a small protective cover layer of legumes provides more shade for algae displaying the features of R-strategists and explerents and able to occupy the available space quickly.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):3-8
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Sviridenko B.F., Murashko Y.A., Sviridenko T.V., Efremov A.N.


In 2015, the researchers held field studies of 98 water bodies of the West Siberian Plain and held a simultaneous study of the aquatic macrophyte biodiversity and water parameters in aquatic ecotopes of Tyumen Region (including Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area) and Omsk Region, covering the territory from 54°20′ N to 61°40′ N and from 63º30′ E to 74º50′ E. The work was aimed at improving the system of phytoindication of the water qualitative condition based on the data on the ecological tolerance of aquatic macrophytes belonging to different systematic groups. In total, the researchers identified 138 species of macroscopic aquatic plants belonging to 72 genera, 46 families, 8 groups, including 1 species of Rhodophyta, 7 of Charophyta, 31 f Chlorophyta, 5 of Xanthophyta, 12 of Bryophyta, 1 of Equisetophyta, 2 of Polypodiophyta, 79 of Magnoliophyta. For these species, рН, mineralization and water hardness ranges (and individual values) were given within the studied aquatic ecotopes located in the West Siberian Plain. New data obtained in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area support the occurrence of some species in ecotopes with acidic environment and low concentration of salts, i.e. in extremely fresh and very soft waters. Corrections were made to previously described рН ranges and halotolerance limits toward more acidic, extremely fresh, very soft waters for Equisetum fluviatile, Nuphar lutea, Nuphar pumila, Nymphaea candida, Nymphaea tetragona, Persicaria amphibia, Hippuris vulgaris, Alisma plantago-aquatica, Eleocharis palustris, Potamogeton gramineus, Phragmites australis, Sparganium angustifolium, Sparganium emersum. The materials obtained in the southern areas of the West Siberian Plain revealed the ability of Spirogyra decimina, Zannichellia repens to withstand alkaline environment, higher mineralization and water hardness as compared to previously known parameters. As for the species found in the West Siberian Plain for the first time ( Nitella syncarpа, Spirogyra daedalea, Spirogyra dictyospora, Spirogyra rugulosa, Spirogyra subcolligata, Vaucheria aversa, Chaetophora incrassata ), as well as species remaining underexplored within their areas ( Zygogonium ericetorum, Percursaria percursa, Salvinia natans, Ruppia maritima, Najas marina ), the researchers obtained new data that significantly updates previously known information on the tolerance to the discussed aquatic environment factors.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):8-17
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Mingalimova A.I., Skorobogatova O.N., Koneva V.V.


The paper presents the results of the study carried out in the forest areas of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra in the upper reaches of the Agan River in 2014. The researchers studied the lichens on 4 sites, including 2 pilot sites exposed to fires of 1992 and 2001, one pilot site in the oil pollution area, and one control site in vivo. The aim was to identify the taxonomic diversity of lichens under human impact and their ecological and floristic characteristics (exemplified by a forest site in the upper part of the Agan River). The study revealed 72 lichen species belonging to 29 genera, with the most diverse composition of 77.8% in an area with no human impact. The new data obtained in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area showed negative human impact on lichens. For instance, the forests exposed to fires in 1992, have 58.3% of lichens, and 48.6% lichens in 2001. The smallest variety of lichens was observed at the geological exploration site (23.6%). The largest number of indicator species was observed on the background site (29) and the lowest was on the site with geolodical exploration facilities. The areas exposed to fires in 1992 showed a fairly active recovery of lichens, which was proven by 22 indicator species, as well as species intolerant to pollution. The area exposed to fires in 2001 is characterized by a low diversity of indicator lichens (17), including the species which are very sensitive and intolerant to pollution. In general, the geological exploration site showed an increased level of lichen inhibition expressed in a poor species composition (23.6% of the species list), reduced projective cover of epiphytic lichens (23.9%) and ground lichens (64.2%), as well as in an occurrence of indicator species (18.0%).
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):17-22
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Zinoviev E.V.


The paper generalizes the sub-fossil insect data from the 29 localities dated by the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, situated in the Northern part of West Siberia Plain and adjacent territories (the Urals and Bolshezemelskaya tundra). Based on the paleontological data, we try to reconstruct the development of entomofaunas during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene (130 thousand years ago). The dynamics of insect faunas corresponds to the main stages of development of the natural communities of this region, reconstructed on the basis of paleobotanical data. In particular, we described sub-fossil insect faunas with warm climate markers (such as ground beetles Trechus secalis ) for the Last (Eemian) interglacial period (130-115 thousand years ago). It is possible that some boreal beetle species ( Cychrus caraboides , Chlaenius costualtus ) changed their areas northwards in comparison with their modern distribution. Subsequent cooling (until the beginning of the Holocene, about 10 thousand years ago) caused the occurrence of cryophilic (arctic, tundra and subarctic) insects. During the Maximum of the Last glaciation (from 20 to 17 thousand years ago) these complexes reflected severe cold and dry climatic conditions. Insect assemblages from the Holocene layers of alluvial and boggy genesis show similarities with modern insect faunas from these territories. We found boreal species (xylobionts and forest duff inhabitants) in the same Holocene sediments associated with the remains of sub-fossil wood. These species are not found in modern insect communities of the Southern Yamal. These data correspond to the advancing northwards woody vegetation during the Holocene climatic optimum (6-5 thousand years ago). The sub-fossil insect data were compared with the results of paleobotanical studies, as well as with modern insect faunas from this area.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):23-36
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Eremeev E.A., Psarev A.M.


The paper describes the studies conducted in the two isolated coniferous forests of the city of Biysk exposed to anthropogenic impact of different degree. The authors revealed 15 species of two Silphidae subfamilies and marked the difference in species domination depending on the anthropogenic pressure. Silpha carinata, S. obscura are dominant in the suburban forest, whereas Oiceoptoma thoracicum, Nicrophorus vespillo, N. vespilloides are the dominants of the industrial area . Generally, the territories under study showed high faunal similarity. The researchers found the representatives of all three biotopical groups (forest, forest-meadow and eurytopic) in Biysk industrial zone, while Amuro-Orlovskiy forest contained only forest and eurytopic species. The authors compared Silphidae fauna of the habitats under study in each forest area and discovered that the differences are more expressed in the forest area of the industrial zone which may be explained by the intense fragmentation of habitats.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):36-41
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Antropova S.A., Kartashev A.G.


The following paper reflects the study of the number and generic composition of soil nematodes in poplar and birch root zones. The authors analyzed spatial distribution of soil nematode communities near in root zones of birches and poplars growing in forest areas near the city of Tomsk and located at a distance of 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm from the root collar. The researchers isolated nematodes applying the modified Berman technique to take 15-30 g of each soil sample three times and used triethanolamine + formalin + water in the ratio 2:7:91 as a fixative substance. The population density of nematodes was calculated per 100 g of soil. The studies revealed 11 nematode genera belonging to the 4 trophic groups in birch root zones and 9 nematode genera belonging to 5 trophic groups in poplar root zone. Plant parasites are the dominant group of nematodes. Another trophic group of nematodes is presented by bacteriotrophes. The study revealed an insignificant proportion of predatory nematodes and nematodes associated with plants, along with high levels bacteriotroph nematodes, which is a characteristic phenomenon of nematodes in forest habitats. Poplar root zones contained a group of polytrophic nematodes. Throughout the study, the number of soil nematodes changed due to changes in soil moistening. The maximum number of soil nematodes was registered at a distance of 20 cm from the root collar. The study of root zones showed that Meloidodera is the dominant nematode genera, while Mononchus, Rhabditis, Plectus are subdominant genera.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):41-45
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Pavlenko A.L., Starikov V.P., Ibragimova D.V., Bernikov K.A.


The paper contains preliminary results of a study of morphological and pathological changes in fish species inhabiting Surgut urban water bodies exposed to anthropogenic impact. The city of Surgut is located in the Middle Ob region and has various types of water bodies. In order to assess the state of fish population and fish organisms, the researchers held a visual inspection and an anatomopathological analysis in the course of their morpho-pathological studies. The studies revealed less than 3% of pathology occurance among fish organisms. The external changes included smoothened skin pattern (river perch, pike), spots on eyes (roach), cysts on gills, fin deformities (river perch). The inner changes included local liver congestion (northern pike), cysts in the liver (river perch, pike), extra fluid in the abdominal cavity (singular fishes). The visual inspection of fish revealed fish injuries such as damages to the subcutaneous tissues and muscles (river perch), oral cavity lacerations (nerfling) caused by fishing tackle, contact with prey fish and boats. The fish with morphological and pathological changes included perch, common pike, roach, and nerfling. In general, the occurrence of morphological and pathological disorders identified among fish population in the urban part of the Ob River is less than 3%.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):45-50
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Starikov V.P., Petukhov V.A., Vinarskaya N.P., Morozkina A.V.


In 2013, East European vole was registered in the city of Surgut. This paper is aimed at assessing the current state of East European vole population inhabiting the northern border of the West Siberian area. In 2002-2015, the researchers studied the population of these small mammals in Surgut and registered about 3,000 voles belonging to 17 species, including 81 cpecimen sampled for study. We used trapping grooves, fences made of polyethylene film and trap lines to catch the voles, later subjected to the standard examination. during the examination the researchers measured the length and weight of each animal, identified its sex, age, reproductive state, evaluated the relative abundance of animals, and brushed each animal in search for ectoparasites. After studying the spatial distribution of East European voles in Surgut, we came to the conclusion that they are more often found in the gardens and in the country (compared to habitats of the undeveloped city territory). The researchers identified the reproductive period of the East European vole inhabiting the northern border of the West Siberian area to last 5 months, from May to September. During this period, adult female voles after hibernation bear two litters, while new adult female voles bear only one. Surgut population of East European voles, compared with other parts of the habitat, is characterized by high fertility. We identified 9 species of mole mites parasiting on the voles, most of which carry tularemia infection. The materials gathered by the authors concerning the East European vole inhabiting Surgut area can be certainly used when compiling an inventory of wildlife in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra. The data is definitely of much use to the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area - Yugra. In general, we conclude that the population of East European voles in the northern border of the West Siberian habitat is developing steadily and expanding into new habitats.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):50-55
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Pogonysheva I.A., Pogonyshev D.A.


The paper presents the results of the functional study held by the authors. During the study, the researchers examined the students of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Geography at Nizhnevartovsk State University to identify hypoxic states of the human body. The study included an analysis of blood oxygen saturation, identification of the ways the autonomic nervous system regulates the cardiovascular system of the body, as well as identification of hypoxia risk factors for young people living in the Northern regions of Russia. The data on surveyed students of both sexes showed that the average values of blood oxygen saturation were within the norm, with no significant gender differences. After evaluating heart rate variability, the students were divided into three groups, including eutonic, sympathotonic and parasympathotonic students. As for the group of students with a predominant activity of the parasympathetic regulation of autonomic nervous system, the number of students with normal levels of blood oxygen saturation was higher in comparison with the group of sympathotonic students. The study helped to reveal the basic hypoxia risk factors for students living in the Northern regions, such as smoking, including passive smoking; genetic predisposition to respiratory diseases; anemia; chronic diseases and low resistance leading to additional load on the respiratory system; low physical activity; short period spent in the Northern conditions.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):56-59
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Vorobiyova T.G., Dementieva E.V., Turmanidze V.G., Turmanidze A.V.


The paper presents the results of the analysis aimed at studying the changes in the level of intellectual work capacity of students (according to Burdon technique). As for the distribution of work capacity indicators for male and female students during the learning process, it was uneven. Male students showed high attention stability and predominantly low concentration values, while female students had predominantly average values of concentration and attention stability. Female students showed higher concentration values than male students, which speaks for a higher ability of females to be more attentive in completing the learning assignments. Male students showed higher attention stability values than female ones, which means that young men have more opportunities to variate the speed of metal activitiy when performing the tasks. The fact that male students had low concentration values while female students showed high attention stability values is indicative of the inhibitory processes occurring diring the intensive learning activity period which triggers off the protective adaptive mechanisms. Female students, along with the average indicator values, showed low attention stability and concentration values prevaling over high values, which can be explained by fatigue and emotional stress during the training period. Psychological adaptation is one of the leading factors in restructuring the adaptive capacity of a human body. This factor helps developing the special features of adaptation at other physiological levels. Personal and typological features play a most important role when evaluating the effectiveness of adaptation.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):59-65
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Solovyov V.S., Solovyova S.V., Bakiyev E.M., Trusevich N.V., Tsertsek T.N.


The paper presents the data on the adaptive features of healthy and meteotropic women, including new residents of the Northen regions and returnees. The authors evaluated the quality of life using SF-36 questionnaire. The analysis showed rather negative physiological and somatic values in all groups, including meteotropic women and returnees, in particular. Women of the senior group had the largest number of risk factors (17 out of 21), most important of which included cold weather, temperature and air pressure variations, solar magnetic perturbations, dyspnea, smoking, fatigue and excess body weight. The analysis of non-specific resistance reactions showed certain extersion of protective features in all groups. We revealed a small number of training responses in all age groups except the group of young women. The group of new settlers with the 1st degree of meteosensitivity showed an increase in the number of training reactions. According to the breath-holding tests, the antihypocsitic stability values were always higher on the inhale than on the exhale. The study revealed negative effects of meteotropy and remigration. Blood tests showed a significantly high anemia occurrence while the level of hemoglobin was close to norm much more often than the number of red blood cells. The levels of non-specific resistance showed a gradual increase in the acute and chronic stress and increased activation reactions in the groups of elderly women, returnees and meteotropicwomen. The study showed quite little number of stress reactions and revealed the fact that the impact of meteorological factors decreases in older age groups and that women showed high sensitive values in the scales of emotions. Non-meteotrophic individuals showed dominant activation reaction in case of stress. As the degree of meteosensitivity increased, it resulted in a shift towards increased activation reaction and increased role of HP in the resistance to weather risk factors.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):66-71
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Aikina L.I.


Massage is well-known to result in a complex of physiological changes in a human body, as it provides health support, regain of working capacity and positive effect on the nervous system. During the massage, the receptor apparatus of the body perceives mechanical stimulation, while the central nervous system gets a stream of pulses reaching the brain cortex and stimulates the corresponding brain centers. In its turn, the central nervous system develops the responses resulting in increasing lability of the central nervous system and changes of skin and muscle sensitivity. The effect depends on the techniques applied and the nature of stimulation. Massage can be used in warming-up the athletes before a sports competition. It can be assumed that by combining ordinary warm-up activity of an athlete with a massage, we can increase a stream of pulses from the skin tactile receptors, proprioceptors, which can improve the overall perception and special intermuscular coordination. Our study shows that by applying various massage techniques, we can affect blood circulation of the massaged area. According to the obtained data, the functional state of skeletal muscle system may vary depending on the massage. When giving massage to an athlete, rubbing is the most effective technique increasing the hemodynamics and tone amplitude within a short period of time (1 minute).
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):71-75
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Simonenkova V.A., Kulagin A.Y.


The territory of the South Urals is considered to be an ecotone, with forest ecosystems, including the ones in Orenburg Region, differing from those in the European Russia, Siberia, the Far East etc. In the absence of agriculture, meadow steppe vegetation remains the major background of the forest-steppe zone, alternating with deciduous forest areas. The region locates the borders of natural distribution of some tree and shrud species of forest phytocenoses. The territory is regularly exposed to air, soil, water and groundwater pollution. The ecological situation observed in Orenburg Region is extremely unfavorable due to high content of heavy metals in rocks and groundwater and acute technogenic load. Technogenic land pollution leads to an increased number of territories contaminated with industrial wastes, petroleum and petroleum products, heavy metals, pesticides and other toxic substances, which creates extreme and critical conditions for trees and shrubs and overall forest ecosystems. Forest plantations are weakened and stressed, with low resistance and little selfregulation capacity. Presently, Orenburg Region forests contain various leaf-and needle-eating insects (nun moths, pine moths, pine falsesawflies, lackey moths, buth-tip moths, oak red-barred tortix moths, yellow-grey spring moths (Monima pulverulenta), satin moths, great winter moths, poplar geomedrid moths, red tail moths, lesser swallow prominents). At the same time, such insects as gypsy moths, brown-tail moths, oak green moths, pine sawfly and star sawfly are reproducing on massive scale in the conditions of the South Urals part of Orenburg Region, which are unique because the area was exposed to intensive negative impact of industrial, mining and radiation pollution (effect from the nuclear explosion at Totsky facility), conversion of natural landscapes into agricultural landscapes, and the fact that the area lies on the borders between semi-desert and steppe, and steppe and forest steppe. Under such conditions, forests are characterized by mass outbreaks of insect pest reproduction.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):76-81
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Makarovа T.A., Makarov P.N.


This article provides information about the necrotic-cancerous diseases of plants, widespread in plantations of Surgut. Until now, this group of infectious diseases in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug is poorly studied, there is no information on the causes of diseases and their harmfulness, measures to combat. Phytopathological analysis of green spaces Surgut has shown a high degree of distribution (from 5,2 to 93,2 %) and the intensity of the damage (9,5 to 72,8 %) plant necrotic-cancerous diseases. Pathogens are phytopathogenic fungi divisions of Deuteromycota (66,7 % of the total number of detected species of fungi), Ascomycota (26,7 %) and Basidiomycota (6,7 %). Under the conditions of the north are dangerous fungi Thyrostoma compactum, caused by an infectious withering (tirostomoz), of elm (Ulmus pumila) and Tubercularia vulgaris, causing necrosis of many plant species (Pinus sylvestris, Betula rubescens, Betula pendula, Padus avium, Crataegus sanguinea, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus pumila ). Diseases reduce the decorative properties of plants, their growth and development. It was established that of the first power of plants tirostomoz lesion reduction of growth is more than 30 %, the second and third degrees - growth is completely absent. To reduce the infection load and improving the phytosanitary condition of the plants in urban plantings must be timely to conduct forestry activities against necrotic-cancerous diseases, with the introduction of ornamental shrubs and formation of artificial planting of plants to take into account the degree of resistance to infectious diseases.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):81-87
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Usmanov I.Y., Yumagulova E.R., Ivanov V.B., Korkina E.A., Shcherbakov A.V., Ivanov N.A., Ryabukha A.V.


The paper presents a study of adaptation processes of ecosystems in the Middle Ob Region exposed to oil production impact. The study revealed that the ecosystems are developing on different levels, from the autecological to the landscape levels. Biologically positive changes are developing more or less independently and parallel to each other at different levels of ecosystems. The restorative processes are formed within different time scales: from fast processes (within a few days) to longer ones (within several decades). Algae’s rapid responses occur under the following scenarios: 1) reproduction of euglenophytes ( Euglenophyta ) with a high level of biodiversity in Lenthic reservoirs; 2) florification of cyanobacteria ( Cianophyta - Cianobacteria ) with the dominance of Anabaena cirenalis Rabenh et Flah .; 3) various rapid responses - development of Spirogira, often with the dominance of Ulotrix variabilis Kutz . Responses occur during the active growing season. Following the oligotrophicity of ecosystems, weak and moderate anthropogenic pollution activates accumulation processes (growth process) and biomass degradation (activation of fungi decomposers and soil enzyme cellulase). This level of contamination is typical for a large number of anthropogenic pollution sites. Microfluxion movement of pollutants (tens to hundreds of meters) tends to equalize their concentration and dilution to the biologically safe level within 1-3 months (during the warm season). As for restoration of plant communities, the successional time is usually several years. The period for restoration of higher plants at the level of functional organization and growth processes amounts to 1-3 vegetation seasons. Soil elements restoration is the slowest process with a time period of 101 -102 years. The proportion of plant species used in the revegitation activities at all sites is rather limited both in terms of productivity indicators (involvement in bioefficiency cenoses) and the projective cover. The researchers have recorded no cases of plants used for revegitation to be dominant in the recultivated plant communities. Moreover, such plant species do not become a part of such communities after revegitation. Anthropogenic impacts are always reimposed over the natural vector and cyclic processes, resulting in a complex interference pattern with the features of fractal systems, hence numerous alternative self-similar scenarios of ecosystem recovery taking place. All the studies of ecosystem recovery were based on the behavior of native species of algae, fungi, higher herbaceous and woody plants.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2016;(2):87-94
pages 87-94 views

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