No 4 (2020)

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Full Issue


Predynastic Egypt – the bosom of ancient egyptian civilization

Sherkova T.A.


This article is the result of many years of work devoted to the problem of the transition of the predynastic era of Egypt to the state. This transition period in the cultural and historical aspect contains both late-primitive phenomena and contents that indicate the development of society in the direction of social differentiation with the identification of aristocratic families headed by a social leader. These processes are reflected in the development of the archaeological culture of Naqada, which has passed through several phases of development, demonstrating the diversity of monuments, artifacts and pictorial texts that are the main sources for the pre-written era of Egypt. They are analyzed in the aspect of fundamental historical and cultural processes. Methodologically, this task is solved by using the developments and conclusions of a number of humanitarian scientific disciplines: semiotics, cultural studies, folklore, depth psychology, etc. This approach makes the research base, which is partly applied, more solid.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):5-14
pages 5-14 views

“Kulturkampf” as the confrontation of the catholic church and the imperial government of Germany in the 70s of the XIX century

Bespalova L.N.


The article is devoted to the analysis of the origins and content of the “kulturkampf” policy initiated by the German Reich Chancellor in the 1870s. The “Struggle for Culture” played a decisive role not only in the formation of the Center party as one of the most influential political parties of the Reichstag in the second half of the 19th century, but also in the history of Germany as a whole. The political orientation of the first German Reich Chancellor towards the strong secular state controlling and limiting church structures was initially in favor of the empire united in 1871 and in line with the trends of the times. But the Reich Chancellor’s harsh, restrictive laws led to police arbitrariness and infringement on the Catholic population of the German Empire. The author identifies the main reasons that led to the persecution and repression of the Catholic minority of the German Empire. The problems of the unification of the German Empire, particularism, federalism, ultramontanism and confessional conflicts are considered in close connection with the topic under study. The research is based on the works of Russian and German researchers and on the legislative acts of Prussia and the German Empire. In addition, the materials of parliamentary debates presented in the verbatim records of the Reichstag and extracts from the memoirs of contemporaries of the event were used.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):15-21
pages 15-21 views

O'Connell and the struggle for the emancipation of the catholics

Kochetkova M.V.


The aim of the study was to examine the most significant achievement in Irish Nationalism, which was embodied in the trend of “moral force”, the Emancipation of Catholics and the role of D. O'Connell in this process. After the introduction of the Union between Ireland and Great Britain in 1801, after the suppression of the 1803 uprising among the Irish nationalists, the apologists of the constitutional way of achieving self-government remained only one way, granting Catholics equal political rights. Automatically, Catholics were not prohibited from being elected as deputies or holding public office. But due to the fact that when entering these positions it was required to give the Crown a double oath, secular and religious, Anglican, Catholics could not give such a second oath. Consequently, Emancipation meant the liberation of Catholics from the religious part of the oath to the Crown. All attempts to pass a law on emancipation within the framework of Westminster ended in the defeat of the initiative of the Irish commoners, it became obvious that a different method of achieving the goal was needed. It was developed by the leader of the Nationalists D. O'Connell. The essence of the new system of struggle was to create a massive, regulated movement of the entire Nation for the political rights of Catholics. It included holding rallies, setting up a press of its own, and the introduction of a Catholic Rent designed to fund the movement from donations. Thus, for the first time in European history, a massive, nationwide, controlled movement was created. As a result of these innovations, Westminster passed the Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829. O'Connell's role in this victory was decisive.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):22-28
pages 22-28 views

Discussion of the problem of US participation in the First World War at the meetings of the 65th American Congress

Soykin A.A.


The article is devoted to the problem of discussing the participation of the United States in the First World War at the meetings of the 65th Congress. The importance of the topic lies in the fact that the materials of the sessions of the Congress, being important historical sources, make it possible, by interpolation, to introduce into scientific circulation new data on the entry and participation of the United States in the war, as well as to determine the attitude of American congressmen to this issue. The research is based on the materials of the American Congress, containing resolutions, draft laws and laws, verbatim records. The main ones are: Resolution on the Declaration of War on the German Empire by the United States; "A law allowing the issuance of bonds to cover the cost of national security and defense, as well as the provision of assistance to foreign governments in the conduct of war through the provision of loans"; discussion and amendment of the "Law on the Allocation of Appropriations for the Naval Service for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1917", etc. The author paid special attention to the analysis of the message of the American President to the US Congress dated April 2, 1917. The materials of the meetings of the 65th Congress are located on the official website of the US Library of Congress and contain information about the entry and participation of the United States in the First World War.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):29-34
pages 29-34 views

The French model of migrants’ integration in all Europe social care development at the 2nd half of the XXth century – beginning of the XXIst century

Yakubova L.A.


The article aims to study the features of French model migrants’ integration in the context of all Europe social space.  The chronological framework is over 1950s – the first twenty years of the XXI century.  The article is quite relevant in connection with the serious migration crisis in the European Union that began in 2014–2015.  The flow of migrants, their integration and social adaptation into the European society caused a strong public outcry, exacerbated the discussion about the consequences of large and illegal migrations. The leading European countries for a long time created and improved their integration models, which served for their social adaptation and assimilation.  This article focuses on French model. The main results are as follows: French model migrants’ integration has been built due to the main social, political, cultural and historical features.  They are supposed to include the principles underlying the French policy of migrant integration, dating back to the period and ideas of the French Revolution; the interpretation “migrant” adopted in French law and influencing the particularities of French model; quantification of direct immigrant’ descendants; prohibition of ethnic statistics. The concept of ethnic minority is absent in French society; in accordance with the Constitution, France is a “single and indivisible” community of citizens, that singles out French model’s name - the republican one.  This model assumed the assimilation of migrants by the host society.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):35-41
pages 35-41 views

The formation of the atomic industry in the urals in the aspect of radiation safety

Bochkareva I.A.


This study examines the formation of the nuclear industry in the Urals from the perspective of radiation safety, identifies objective and subjective factors that led to problems in the field of radiation protection of nuclear facility personnel in the process of developing nuclear production, an assessment of the level and extent of radiation exposure to operating personnel. The author notes that the creation of the domestic nuclear industry took place in extremely difficult conditions of the post-war period and was fraught with many difficulties, especially at the initial stage of the formation of the nuclear industrial complex. During the years of commissioning and development of the first nuclear facilities, first of all, the industry pioneer – the Mayak chemical plant, production personnel had to work under conditions of increased radioactive radiation. The experimental nature of plutonium production in the Urals, the novelty of the problem, the miscalculations and mistakes of designers and scientists, the extremely small amount of knowledge about the effects of radiation on a living organism, the secrecy regime and a number of other reasons led to the emergence of an emergency radiation situation at all main production facilities of the chemical plant, which entailed a significant re-irradiation of nuclear facility personnel. However, at that time, the problems of radiation protection of personnel did not have priority for the country's top political leadership. The main thing was to get plutonium for the first Soviet atomic bomb in the shortest possible time, regardless of the cost.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):42-53
pages 42-53 views

Organization of river transport operations on small rivers of the Tyumen region in the first half of the 1960s

Knizhnikov V.A.


The article deals with the problems of organizing the work of river transport on small rivers of the Tyumen region in 1960–1964. One of the most important sources of information was the reporting documents on the work of transport. The first steps aimed at improving the transport supply on small rivers at the beginning of the oil and gas development of Western Siberia are analyzed. It characterizes the composition of cargo, the redistribution of the fleet in the process of work, interdepartmental disputes and ways to resolve them, provides statistics on traffic volumes, as well as other specific aspects of work on small rivers. Among the constantly arising problems is the lack of staff and turnover, which had to be solved when planning navigation. Attention is drawn to the fact that, despite the low level of mechanization of the river economy, there was a well-functioning connection between the river departments and design bureaus of the Ministry of the river fleet. It is noted that the initial period of the development of river highways took place through a qualitative and quantitative increase in labor productivity. The importance of intensive preparation of river routes in 1960–1964 is noted. It is indicated that during the period under review, a qualitative step forward was made, which subsequently made it possible to gain a rapid pace of development of Western Siberia.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):54-60
pages 54-60 views

Discussions about the state sovereignty of Russia at the First Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR

Malkhozova F.V.


This article is devoted to the Declaration on State Sovereignty of Russia. The main result of the first Congress of People's Deputies was the assertion of Russian sovereignty, ensuring economic independence. The issue of sovereignty is one of the most acute and painful topics of the Soviet and post-Soviet times. In the RSFSR, the question of the realization of its sovereignty became aggravated by the end of perestroika, when it became clear that, in comparison with other republics, Russia did not even have limited statehood. Most republics of the Soviet Union had their own communist parties and their “nomenclatures”, which were quite autonomous in exercising power and their interests. The RSFSR did not have this. With a policy of publicity and open elections, the concept of sovereignty came to the fore in election campaigns and became central to the work of the first congress of people's deputies of the RSFSR.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):61-66
pages 61-66 views

The place expert’s opinions in Soviet technological project of first half 1960th: the case Astrakhan and Selenga paper and cardboard mills

Mostovenko M.S.


In the article discussed history of building Astrakhan and Selenga paper and cardboard mills. The author on base archival materials is analyzing the impact of expert commentary on the building paper and cardboard mills. The main purpose of the article is to show, on the example of the construction of the CCC, the process of relations between scientific expert groups and government representatives on the issue of environmental safety in the design and location of the country's production facilities. In addition, the author emphasizes that for the Soviet leadership, issues of the environmental component of enterprises often became secondary, departing from economic necessity. At the same time, the scientific community itself did not in some cases have a single position on a particular issue, since a conflict arose between representatives of departmental and scientific academic structures, which was most pronounced during the construction of the Selenginsky pulp and cardboard plant. In the case of the Astrakhan pulp and cardboard plant project, it is shown that underestimating the capabilities of the resource base of production can lead to environmental problems. Author marked that despite of scientific and technological inspection, scientific opinions was ignored by government leaders in cases large technological objects.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):67-75
pages 67-75 views

Production of ammunition to the plant “Krasnoye Sormovo” in 1941–1944

Pustyrev P.V.


The article discusses the production of ammunition at the Krasnoye Sormovo plant during the Second World War. Based on the study of general scientific and specialized archival materials, systematization and generalization of the data obtained, an analysis of the activities of the labor collective and management structures of the «Krasnoye Sormovo» plant for the production of ammunition is carried out. The dynamics of the growth in the production of shells and the development of new types of ammunition in the period 1941–1944 is determined, the process of creating mass production of shells in the workshops of the plant, strengthening cooperation with other defense enterprises and organizing railway communication between them is shown. The methods of modernization and improvement of equipment and technology for the production of ammunition, methods of increasing the production and personnel potential of the plant, as well as the heroic work of the factory workers in wartime conditions are examined in detail. During the war period, the share of the production of ammunition in the total volume was about 17%, which objectively testifies to the contribution of the production of artillery and rockets at the Krasnoye Sormovo plant to a radical turning point during the Second World War.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):76-82
pages 76-82 views

Economic ties between Ufa and Siberia in the late 19th and early 20th century

Rodnov M.I.


After the railroad had been built through the mountains of the Southern Urals in 1888–1892, the economic ties between Ufa and Siberian regions began to develop rapidly. Loads of Siberian grain poured westward to the European Russia markets through Ufa, and even the Chelyabinsk tariff wall could not hold it back. Ufa is located west of the Southern Urals, and the Trans-Ural cereals and the Siberian flour, produced by the mills in Chelyabinsk and Miass, entered the Ufa market without hindrance, creating competition for local producers. At the same time, starting from the early 1890s, caravans with Kyakhta (Chinese) tea, which used to have travelled to Irbit, went to the nearest railway station. From there tea was exported to Ufa that turned into a large centre of tea trade in Imperial Russia. The network of branches of the Volga-Kama Commercial Bank, established by the early 20th century, provided fast money transfers from Ufa to the main economic centres of Siberia and the Far East. The scope of transfers exceeded one million roubles in the 1900s. The main trading partners of Ufa in Siberia were Irkutsk, Kurgan, Omsk, and Tyumen. The last round of establishing the economic ties between Ufa and Siberia and the Far East took place during World War I. Provand for Ufa was purchased there.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):83-90
pages 83-90 views

Some aspects of life of prosphora bakers from the clergy of the Tobolsk diocese in the 19th and early XX century

Spichak A.V.


The study addresses some aspects of the life experience of female prosphora bakers from the clergy in the Tobolsk diocese, Russian Empire, in the 19th and early 20th century. The research objectives were to investigate opportunities and difficulties that women faced trying to get the job of a prosphora baker, and to find out reasons why women would seek this position. The sources of information for the research were previously unexamined archival documents preserved in the State Archives in Tobolsk. General scientific, historical and special methods of records management were also used. The main problem for jobseekers was the fact that one parish most often required only one prosphora maker, and there were usually more people willing to take this position. It was up to the diocesan authorities to decide which candidate needed the job more, but the parishioners could also take part in the hiring process by submitting their letter of consent. In the modern period of Russian Orthodox Church’s resurgence, it is especially important to study how the clergy would manage their daily living needs in dioceses. The positive experience of the past can help improve the system of social relief in our time. The results of the research can be useful to archivists in their professional activities and to educators in developing courses on the history of Russia and records management.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):91-100
pages 91-100 views

Organization of social assistance to children in the years Great Patriotic War on the territory of the Saratov region (dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Great Victory…)

Sushko M.Y.


The article is devoted to the study of social and historical aspects of the organization of policy for the protection and assistance of children in the period 1941–1945. The main focus is on the regional aspect. In the article, to achieve the goal of the study, namely, to assess the effectiveness and identify shortcomings in the organization of the work of local party authorities on the organization and placement of children, archival documents of the war years were used. Archival documents allowed us to recreate the historical picture of work in the rear, on the organization and placement of orphanages, providing material assistance to homeless and low-income families with children, the order of organizing and supplying children with food and industrial goods. The figures and data given in the article are of practical significance. They provide an opportunity to conduct a comparative analysis of the provision and organization of work of local authorities in other regions of the Volga region and the Soviet Union as a whole during the study period. In the year of the anniversary celebration of the victory In the great Patriotic war, there is an urgent need to expand and attract new documents from regional archives, for a more complete objective reconstruction of the heroic pages of our country's past, to assess the effectiveness of social work and the significance of specific social policy measures aimed at protecting children.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):101-110
pages 101-110 views

Documenting the prevention and struggle of the Moscow zemstvo with cholera in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

Ugryumova M.V., Fomenko M.V.


Based on the analysis of archival materials and periodical zemstvo publications, the process of documenting the work of zemstvo institutions in the Moscow province in the prevention and control of cholera epidemics in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries is studied, and documents on the activities of individual County zemstvos are considered. Various groups of archival documents from the collections of the Central state archive of Moscow are analyzed, which comprehensively reveal the difficulties of fighting and preventive measures aimed at preserving the health of the population of the Moscow province in the second half of the XIX century – at the beginning of the twentieth century: minutes of meetings of zemstvo assemblies, divisions of the zemstvo responsible for fighting epidemics (first of all, the Sanitary Bureau of the Moscow zemstvo), acts of inspections of the rural population, memoirs of zemstvo doctors, epistolary documents (memories are of primary importance, including personal records of the Governor F.V. Dzhunkovsky, the head of the Moscow zemstvo sanitary Bureau P.I. Kurkin). The results of the formation and development of documentation support for Moscow zemstvo epidemiological medicine in the system of General national health care, aimed at comprehensive protection of public health, its protection and preservation, are summarized. Stressed the paramount importance of the collection of the Moscow provincial Council and district zemstvo in Moscow province, deposited in Central state archive of Moscow, to recreate a complete picture of the formation and development of zemstvo medicine in the Moscow province.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):111-120
pages 111-120 views

War and mercy: professional activity of N.I. Pirogov in days of Crimean (1853–1856) and the Russian-Turkish (1877–1878) Wars

Shulyak E.V.


The purpose of this publication is the research of separate aspects of the history of the Crimean War (1853–1856) and Russian-Turkish War (1877–1878) and, in particular, the activities of the famous doctor N.I. Pirogov (1810–1881) concerning his care for the wounded and sick Russian soldiers during the heroic defense of Sevastopol and during the course of his treatment of the Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolaevich Romanov (Sr.) in the years of the Russian-Turkish War (1877–1878). The author used retrospective, narrative and biographic methods. The subject of this publication is very relevant because the history of the military conflicts of the second half of the 19th century have not received detailed development in domestic historical science today. Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov trained many famous doctors for medical work, one of whom was Alexander Leontyevich Obermiller. The famous scientist-surgeon N.I. Pirogov and his pupil, A.L. Obermiller, the graduate of the Imperial medical-surgical academy, worked together at first in a military and overland hospital, and then were participants in the heroic defense of Sevastopol, helping wounded and sick soldiers in the years of the Crimean War (1853–1856). They combined medical treatment with organizational work directed to improve the system of medical care during wartime, promoting the innovative methods offered by N.I. Pirogov. Sources of personal origin (N.I. Pirogov's published letters: «The Sevastopol letters and memoirs», letters to A.L. Obermiller), the central periodicals including weekly illustrations in the Vsemirnaya Illyustration magazine, publications of the N.I. Pirogov, and also publications of the doctors and scientists D.A. Balalykin, M.N. Kozovenko and S.I. Trikhina and other authors formed the basis of this research. Use of the epistolary heritage of Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov as the most important source of this research allowed this writer to look at events of the Crimean War and Russian-Turkish War from a position of their contemporaries. The publication is of interest to historians and also to doctors and students of medical educational institutions. 

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2020;(4):121-128
pages 121-128 views

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