No 4 (2017)

Articles
ALGOTCENOSES COMPOSITION OF RESERVOIRS IN VOLGOGRAD REGION
Karabskaya A.S., Ivantsova E.A.
Abstract
Studies of algocenoses are timely as the biomonitoring data show the ecological state of water basins and can be used аor planning and taking actions to protect environment. The objective of our research was to study water bodies of different origins in Volgograd region and to identify the peculiarities of their algocenoses. The article deals with water bodies of different origins in Volgograd area i.e. full-system pond fish farm «Flora» (pond № 1, pond № 5, pond № 7); Biruchiy Bay of Volgograd reservoir; artificially created wetland, which has no connection to the reservoir. There have been identified similarities in algocenoses compositions. It was found that phytoplankton biomass in the researched objects gradually increases since April reaching its peak in August, then it gradually decreases and by the end of October is minimumal.The average phytoplankton biomass in the studied points ranged from 0.7644 to 2.7882 mg/L in spring , from 3.5923 to 53.9616 mg/L in the summer and from 3.5870 to 10.2592 mg/L in autumn. There was a positive corelation between the level of biomass and chlorophyll a in the tested water samples. It was revealed that Diatomeae, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria were the basis of phytoplankton species composition in ecosystems of the studied objects. 46 species and subspecies were discovered in phytoplankton composition and the dominant algae taxa were identified i.e. Diatomeae - Aulacoseira granulata , Nitzschia angustata , Chlorophyta - Chlorella vulgaris, Pandorina morum and Cyanobacteria - Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena contorta . It was determined that the ratio of different types of algae taxa was approximately the same throughout the study period, and the coefficient of species similarity of phytoplankton communities was rather high - its fluctuations were from 0.6 to 0.86.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):4-8
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TAXONOMIC STRUCTURE OF CYANOPROKARYOTA AND ALGAE OF WATER BODIES IN «YUGRA» PARK (NIZHNEVARTOVSK AREA, KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS OKRUG - YUGRA)
Skorobogatova O.N.
Abstract
The paper presents the results of the research conducted in 2015-2016 during the open water period. The research was commissioned by the Museum Ethnological and Ecological Park «Yugra». The objects of the study included plankton, benthos and periphyton algae in the water bodies located in the park i.e.the Ay Kyrtypyakh River, Pasynlor Lake and sphagnous raised bogs. Сollection of materials, their preparation and analysis were conducted by the methods commonly accepted in algology. The list of algae and cyanoprokaryota was brought into conformity with «AlgaeBase» 2017 nomenclature. During the period of the research the water temperature in the above mentioned water bodies varied between +2-22°С; the transparency by Secchi disk was 52-100cm; the hydrogen ion concentration was 5.3-5.7. The integrated research allowed scientists to detect rich composition of cyanoprokaryota and algae species and types. Algae community in the Ay Kyrtypyakh River is reophilic. The species found in the river comprise 59,6% of all the species in «Yugra» park. The Park bogs and Lake Pasynlor have less diversified algae community which is mostly represented by small celled species (35,2% for the bogs and 34,2% for the lake). Two phyla, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta, dominate with 74,5% of the total composition. They dominate not only in algoflora but also in algal communities of some studied objects (76,9% in the Ay Kyrtypyakh River; 80,6% in Lake Pasynlor; 72,5% in sphagnous raised bogs). Significant richness in species was determined in Bacillariophyceae and Conjugatophyceae (Zygnematophycea) classes, Eunotiaceae, Pinnulariaceae, Closteriaceae, Desmidiaceae and Phacaceae families as well as in Eunotia, Closterium and Pinnularia genera. Special characteristic of the family spectrum is the richness of species in Eunotiaceae. The algoflora demonstrates formation of a «bog complex» adapted to the acidification and poor mineral composition of the waters. The research identified a considerable number of scanty classes, families and genera. According to their activity the algae are divided into 4 groups. Exceptionally numerous are inactive species. Rhopalodia gibba is the most active species in the river while Oocystis marssonii, O. rhomboidea are active in the lake. While studying algae species in the river after the effects of oil pollution, a dramatical loss of species diversity was found. 8 species are common for all the studied water bodies i.e. Cyclotella meneghiniana, Tabellaria fenestrata, T. flocculosa, Rhopalodia gibba, Eunotia exigua, E. fallax, E. lunaris and E. minor.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):8-16
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LICHENS SPECIES COMPOSITION IN THE KUR-ARAZ LOWLAND
Alverdiyeva S.M.
Abstract
Despite the long history of lichenological research in Azerbaijan, the flora of lichens in the Kur-Araz lowland has been studied poorly. Since the literary sources contain only partial information about the lichens of the investigated lowland, the aim of our work was to establish the taxonomic composition of this region. Preliminary information on lichens of the Kur-Araz lowland is given in the work. The list includes a total of 56 taxa belonging to 40 genera, 17 families and 4 classes of the Ascomycota section. 16 species from the above-mentioned list are new for the Kur-Araz lowland i.e. Alyxoria varia , Anatychia cilirais , Arthopyrenia subcerasi , Candelariella vitellina , Cetraria aculeata , Collema tenax, Flavoplaca citrina , Lecanographa amylacea , Lecanora crenulata , Lepraria incana , Parmelia ryssolea , Phaeophyscia hirsuta , P. orbicularis , Romjularia lurida , Tephromela atra, Xanthoparmelia conspersa . Information regarding the location in the studied area, substrate and belonging to the ecological group was given for each species. Among the identified lichens, the largest number of species is found in crustose lichens (24 species or 44% of the total species number), foliose lichens (15 species /28%), fruticose (8 /15%) and squamulose lichens (7 /13%). Depending on the hydric factor, six groups were distinguished such as hygromesophytes, mesophytes, mesophytes-xeromesophytes, xeromesophytes, xerophytes and xerophytes-cryophytes. Each of hygromesophytes, mesophytes-xeromesophytes, xerophytes-cryophytes groups is represented by one species only. The group of xeromesophytes includes 2 species from 2 genera and 2 families; the mesophytes group introduces 19 species from 14 genera and 6 families. The group of xerophytes is represented by the largest number i.e. 28 species from 21 genera and 14 families which reflects the ecological features and climatic conditions of the studied area.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):16-21
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THE FIRST FIND OF ALTHENIA FILIFORMIS (ZANNICHELLIACEAE) IN THE OMSK REGION
Sviridenko B.F., Sviridenko Т.V., Мurashko Y.A.
Abstract
The genus Althenia Petit ( Zannichelliaceae ) is new to the flora of the Omsk Region. In 2016, in two salt lakes in the far west of the West Barabinsk Plain, populations of Althenia filiformis F. Petit subsp. orientalis Tzvel were found. In the studied habitats, the projective cover degree of A. filiformis was within 1 %, the height of the generative shoots reached 4 to 5 cm. A flowering hydrophyte Ruppia maritima L. also contributed to the formation of the coenoses, although the green algae Ulothrix implexa (Kütz.) Kütz., U. flacca (Dillw.) Thurn. and cyanobacteria of the genus Oscillatoria Vauch. prevailed. Such aggregations were common in vast water spaces along the shore line of both lakes. In the West Siberian Plain, Althenia filiformis subsp. orientalis occurs in sodium chloride and sulphate sodium chloride waters with salinity between 18,1 to 79,97 g/dm3, total hardness between 98,9 to 420,5 meq/dm3, рН between 7,1 to 9,2 or higher. A study of the morphology and ecology of A. filiformis showed that in the south of the West Siberian Plain this species was a typical therophyte. As for water salinity, A. filiformis together with Ruppia drepanensis L. and R. maritima forms a salt-water floristic complex of species which does not extend into fresh waters.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):22-24
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RESULTS AND PROSPECTS OF INTRODUCTION OF BAMBOOS (BAMBUSA SCHREB.) AT THE SOUTHERN COAST OF THE CRIMEA
Maksimov A.P., Khromov A.F.
Abstract
The studies on the biology and ecology of bamboos ( Bambusa Schreb.) are timely and will allow scientists to develop theoretical foundations for their introduction and selection in the south of Russia. Researches in this field are characterized by a scientific novelty and practical effect. The purpose of these studies is to sum up the results of bamboo introduction in Nikitsky Botanical Garden (NBG) and on the Southern Coast of the Crimea (SCC) as well and to introduce new species to enrich their collection. The study started in 1985 and was conducted according to the plan of scientific research works of the Department of Dendrology and Landscape Architecture of NBG “Bioecological foundations for introduction of monocot woody plants in the Crimea and the Caucasus”. The paper presents the results of bamboos ( Bambusa Schreb.) introduction in the open field of Nikitsky Botanical Garden (NBG) arboretum. The taxonomic composition of the bamboo collection in NBG includes 6 species and 1 garden form, while 8 species and 1 garden form grow on the SCC, i.e. Japanese timber bamboo ‘Castillon’ ( Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. var castillioni (Marliac) Mak., 1900), green-glaucous bamboo (Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens (Carrière) Rivière & C.Rivière, 1878); black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra (Lodd. Ex Lindl.) Munro, 1868), golden bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C.Rivière, 1878), nude sheath bamboo (Phyllostachys nuda McClure, 1945); dwarf fernleaf bamboo (Pleioblastus distichus (Mitford) Nakai, 1932), medake (Pleioblastus simonii (Riv.) Nakai, 1925), Pleioblastus gramineus (Pleioblastus gramineus (Bean) Nakai, 1925) and arrow bamboo (Pseudosasa japonica (Sieb. et Zucc.) Mak., 1920). All above-mentioned species and garden forms belong to 3 genera Phyllostachys (Phyllostachys (Sieb. et Zucc.), Pleioblastus (Pleioblastus Nakai) and Pseudosasa (Pseudosasa Makion et Nakai). Their prospectivity for subarid conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea (SCC) has been shown. A prospect of collection enrichment with new species, varieties and garden forms of bamboos has been determined. The primary introduction test of was conducted on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. There have been determined opportunities for collection enrichment with new species, varieties and garden forms of bamboos which have undergone the primary introduction test on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):25-32
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ZONAL PECULIARITIES OF THE VEGETATION COVER AND ITS PRESERVATION IN THE NORTH-EASTERN PART OF TUVA
Sambuu A.D.
Abstract
The main regularities in vegetation cover distribution in Tuva depends on latitudinal zoning, altitudinal zonality, phenomena of intrazonal category, historical events in the formation of flora and vegetation and anthropogenic factors. By the nature and patterns of vegetation cover Tuva belongs to two major natural units, i.e. the Altai-Sayan mountain region and the area of desert steppes and deserts of drainless basins of Northern Mongolia. The North-Eastern part of Tuva is one of the few areas of Siberia, where economic activities are very limited due to its remote location. So, the topography and climate of the region make the most of the territory unsuitable for agricultural activity and, consequently, such processes as anthropogenic erosion, deflation, diminishing of soil and vegetation cover fertility and transformation are not developed. Such traditional types of nature management have been still kept up, i.e. reindeer herding, hunting, fishing and gathering. However, at present the mining industry is beginning to develop in the region. The planned facilities for constructing mining and processing integrated plants are located on the headstreams of the Yenisei, on the periphery of the Todzha depression that is in the North-Eastern part of Tuva, which is a unique natural “pearl” and ecologically clean area of the Altai-Sayan region. The paper focuses on the structure of the vegetation cover of the studied area, its dynamics and vulnerability to anthropogenic impacts. Special attention is given to the cedar, cedar-larch and sparse forests classified as climatic protective group I. The article touches upon the issues of rare and extinct plants protection.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):32-39
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TECHNOGENIC CONTAMINATION OF MEADOW ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SOZH RIVER FLOODPLAIN IN VETKA DISTRICT, GOMEL REGION, 30 YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL CATASTROPHE
Dаjnekо N.М.
Abstract
The article contains data on technogenic contamination of meadow ecosystems in the river Sozh floodplain in Vetka district, Gomel region, 30 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe. Seven meadow ecosystems were examined. The aim of the research was to assess contamination of meadow ecosystems by cesium-137, strontium-90 and heavy metals. Geobotanical, ecological-floristic, radiological, chemical methods were used in the research. The greatest specific activity of 137Cs was recorded in Deschampsietum cespitosae association and the highest activity of 90Sr was noticed in Junco- Deschamsietum cespitosae association. In the soil the highest level was stated for Fe (312,12 mg/kg) and for Mn (72,22 mg/kg). The minimum was determined for Cd (˂ 0.06 mg / kg); the same amount of Cr was observed in all objects. At the same time, small differences were noted in the accumulation of Co. The content of heavy metals didn’t exceed the maximum permissible concentration of heavy metals in the studied meadow ecosystems soils. The Caricetum gracilis and Phalaridetum arundinaceae plant associations had the highest amount of the aboveground phytomass, namely 3,76 and 3,65 t/ha dry weight, respectively. Accumulation of Co (0,02 mg/kg); Pb (0,03 mg/kg); Cd (0,01 mg/kg); Cr (0,014 mg/kg) in the aboveground phytomass was almost equal in all meadow ecosystems. Plant associations are distinguished by the maximum content of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, as well as by the minimum amount. Based on the accumulation coefficient (AC), i.e. the ratio of the amount of heavy metals in the plant to the amount of heavy metals in the soil, the following series of the AC values in decreasing order was established: Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Cr, Co, Pb. The mean values vary within 0,03-15,4 (mg/kg)/(mg/kg). The maximum AC value was determined for the Caricetum gracilis association.The minimum AC values were stated for Deschampsietum cespitosae , Poo-Festucetum pratensis , Junco-Deschamsietum cespitosae . The highest specific activity for cesium-137 was observed in the aboveground phytomass of the Deschampsietum cespitosae association, for strontium-90 in the Junco-Deschamsietum cespitosae association. The specific activity for cesium-137 in the Deschampsietum cespitosa association was 1439 Bq/kg, and exceeded the Republican permissible level (RDU-99) - 1300 Bq/kg. The specific activity of cesium-137 did not exceed the permissible level of 1300 Bq / kg in other associations. The specific activity of the aboveground mass of all the studied associations for strontium-90 did not exceed the permissible level.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):40-46
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FIRST RECORD OF FRESHWATER BRYOZOA PLUMATELLA EMARGINATA ALLMAN, 1844 (PHYLACTOLAEMATA) IN THE AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE FAUNA IN THE KURCHATOV RESERVOIR
Gontar V.I.
Abstract
In new for the biosphere, techno-ecosystems, the marginal, contour or marginal biotopes and their population i.e. the biocenoses that live here, often play a determining role for the whole ecosystem and a man. Important for these ecosystems are ecotopic groupings (benthos and periphyton), their heterotrophic component and according to the hydrobiological classification - zoobenthos and zooperiphyton. The studying of these groups was caused by their significant role in the life activity of hydroecosystems as well as by the problems associated with the biological disturbances they cause. To date, there are certain difficulties in the taxonomic identification of benthos and periphyton organisms in general and freshwater bryozoans in particular. It is necessary to take into account the specificity of technical elements that can determine peculiar characteristics of the entire techno-ecosystem. In this sense, the surface of hydroconstructions is quite similar to natural solid substrates. The reservoir has similarities, both with a lake and a river. However, many peculiar characteristics of techno-elements and anthropogenic factors in combination with the natural ones are completely different from the latter, which creates the specificity of techno-ecosystems. The processes occurring in techno-ecosystems are of a dual nature and are determined both by natural and technogenic factors. The influence of natural factors must be taken into account while the technical ones can be regulated to a certain extent.In natural ecosystems, there are some patterns of structural biotopic organization. The combination and interrelation of biotopes is determined by the design and operation mode of technical systems. A lot of topical elements may be absent in techno-ecosystems though they are common in natural ecosystems. At the same time, there are many peculiarities in natural ecosystems. In an artificial watercourse there are no such important elements of the biotope of lotic natural systems as ruts, stretches, meandering and connection with external floodplain reservoirs.In the life of technical reservoirs (techno-ecosystems) changes occur in several phases, each related to the peculiarities of the period of using. The main task of technical hydrobiology is not only to control the impact of technical systems and factors on the natural environment, but to develop principles and methods for managing an integrated techno-ecosystem as well. There are specific organisms (such as sponges, bryozoans) which are extremely rare in the benthos. Reported are data of the first finding of freshwater bryozoan species Plumatella emarginata Allman, 1844 which was found in the Kurchatov reservoir on artificial substrates in 2015.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):47-54
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EFFECTS OF GASOLINE AND DIESEL FUEL ON TESTATE AMOEBAE COMMUNITIES
Kulyukina E.V., Kartashev A.G.
Abstract
This article presents the results of a study on the effects of gasoline and diesel fuel on the numerical and species composition of the community of testae amoebae in light gray forest soil. It has been shown that soil invertebrates can be used as bioindicators of the environment pollution level. The authors studied the effect of gasoline and diesel fuel on testae amoebae communities in laboratory conditions. Oil contaminants were added in concentrations of 20 and 100 g/kg of dry soil. The site without pollutants was considered to be a control plot. Counting and analysis of invertebrate organisms was carried with the help of BIOMED-2 microscope with an increase of × 160. The testae amoebae accounting was made by direct microscoping of the soil suspension. Oil contamination with the concentration of 200 g / kg has the greatest impact on the structure and size of the communities. On the study sites contaminated with gasoline and diesel fuel in different concentrations, 14 species of testae amoebae were identified i.e. Phryganella acropodial, Cyclopyxis aroelloides, Plagiopyxis intermedia, Plagiopyxis glyphostoma, Cryptodifflugia compressa, Nebela dentistoma, Nebela lageniformis, Nebela collaris, Nebela militaris, Centropyxis vandeli, Centropyxis platystoma, Centropyxis cassis, Phryganella paradoxa, Cryptodifflugia minor. Testae amoebae resistant to oil products have been identified i.e. Phryganella acropodia, Cryptodifflugia compressa, Cyclopyxis aroelloides, Nebela dentistoma, Nebela lageniformis, Nebela collaris, Plagiopyxis glyphostoma . Moreover, a decrease in the number and species diversity of testae amoebae communities was recorded under different concentrations of oil contaminats in the soil. The study data can be used by researchers, teachers and students specializing in biology, general ecology and nature management.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):54-63
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CHANGES OF ORIBATID MITES POPULATION IN SOILS OF TAZOVSKIY PENINSULA UNDER CONDITIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION
Andrievskii V.S., Barsukov P.A.
Abstract
A study was made on the effect of atmospheric emissions from gas industry technological objects on the population of soil-inhabiting oribatid mites on the Tazovskiy peninsula (sub-zone of southern tundra) in West Siberia . It has been shown that the most important influence of atmospheric pollutants on oribatid mites community is observed on the qualitative level rather than on the quantitative one. Such quantitative parameter as the species richness practically does not change no matter what the atmotechnogenic pollutants level is. From 5 to 7 species are present in every studied biotope whatever is the level of contamination. At the same time another parameter - total abundance - even increases at high levels of contamination reaching 10-20 thousand individuals per m2 near the source of pollution and 2-4 thousand individuals per m2 far from it. Qualitatively the pollution level affects the ecological structure of oribatid mites population. At higher concentrations of atmotechnogenic pollutants near the objects of the gas producing complex the percentage of small species (well adapted to different stresses of the environment) is 83-89 % of all oribatid mites community. But for all that the number of larger litter-topsoil species more sensitive to the influence of external negative influences is very small in these conditions, just 11-17 %. Under the low level of atmotechnogenic pollutants the ratio of these two ecological groups of oribatid species changes to the opposite. Thus the contamination of atmosphere by emissions from gas industry in West Siberian tundra does not influence oppressively the oribatid mites population. It remains viable by changing its ecological structure demonstrating its high restoring potential which can be realized when there is no effect of stress factors.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):63-70
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LONG-TERM EFFECT OF CENOMANIAN SOLUTIONS ON COMMUNITIES OF SOIL NEMATODES IN LIGHT GRAY FOREST SOILS
Kalashnikova S.A., Kartashev A.G.
Abstract
Long-term effect of Cenomanian solutions on the size and structure of soil nematodes communities were studied in natural conditions. Spills of highly mineralized waters from Cenomanian layers, which are used to maintain reservoir pressure, are dangerous for the environment. As a result of accidents there is salinization of soil and degradation of vegetation. For the study, the authors have chosen mixed forest on the right bank of the Tom River. The research estimated population dynamics of soil nematodes when exposed to highly mineralized solutions. The total number of nematodes during the study period changed over a wide range. The minimum of 1347 ind./100 g was registered in April while the maximum of 14554 ind/100 g was reached in May under the soil contamitation by highly mineralized solutions with the concentration of 200 g/kg. Taxonomic composition of nematode communities was studied as well. The researchers have found 26 genera that form the basis of nematode communities in unpolluted areas of light-gray forest soils. The influence of the Cenomanian solutions leads to the elimination of several genera of nematodes. The number of taxa varied from 20 to 21 depending on the solution concentration. Bacteriotrophs are the dominant group of the soil nematodes according to the number of taxa in the reference area. When Cenomanian solutions influece the communities of nematodes, 3 types of bacteriotrophs eliminate i.e. Prismatolaimus, Mesorhabditis and Acrobeles . Plant associated nematodes vary in quantity, as for the number of genera it does not change regardless of the concentrations of Cenomanian solutions added to the soil.The study established a negative impact of highly mineralized solutions which change the structure of soil nematodes communities.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):71-77
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TROPHIC EFFECT OF MOOSE (Alces alces, L.) ON CONIFEROUS UNDERGROWTH IN 5-20 YEAR-OLD DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS YOUNG FORESTS
Pilipko E.N.
Abstract
The article shows some data on the trophic activity of the moose ( Alces alces, L.) as the largest dendrophage of the North-West of Russia. The aim of the work is to assess the influence of moose on coniferous undergrowth i.e. pine, fir and juniper as the most valuable species for forest management. The ‘moose-and-forest’ problem remains urgent for 50 years. The studies were conducted on the territories of clear fellings with 5-25 year-old natural deciduous and coniferous undergrowth. The fellings varied in area and composition of coniferous species. The undergrowth and young forest species have been counted and various types of mechanical damage caused by the moose have been recorded such as tip breaking, bark browsing. annual lateral shoots biting and tree trunks breaking. Considering the forage capacity of the land the optimal number of moose is given. A forecast based on the repeated observations has been made on the survival of the damaged specimens of pines and junipers. As a result of the research, it has been revealed that the stock of woody forage in different areas of young forests with the same species composition affects the condition of the coniferous species damaged by the moose. Pine is the most preferred of the coniferous species, juniper is the next. During the studies the moose was not interested in spruce as in fodder. A greater percentage of damage to pine and juniper was found in 5-25 year-old deciduous and coniferous undergrowth of a small area (4.2 hectares) surrounded by vast territories of fresh clear fellings. In larger areas due to a sufficient amount of deciduous forage not only on the overgrown felling site but also in the land adjacent to it no significant damage was found. The percentage of lost trees of the considered species is moderate. According to our forecasts, on a small trial plot the species composition of forest biogeocenosis can eventually change from pine to spruce. The moose is known to prefer mosaic habitats, therefore, in order to prevent elemination of coniferous species, it is necessary to keep the optimal cutting area on adjoining territories which will eventually be used as fodder lands by the moose.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):77-87
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INTERDEPENDENCE OF PARAMETERS OF PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AND COMPONENT COMPOSITION OF THE ORGANISMS OF WOMEN WORKING IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
Govoruhina А.А., Slyusar E.N.
Abstract
75 women-engineers working at Surgut Research Industrial Institute were examined. The women were divided into 2 age groups of 21-35 and 36-60 and into 4 groups according to the length of residence in the North i.e. people born in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, people living in the North up to 10 years, people living in the North from 11 to 20 years and those living in the North from 21to 30 years. An analysis was made into the relationship between the component composition of the body mass and the indicators of life quality for women engineers working in the oil and gas industry in the northern region. The statistics showed deterioration of the physical component of life quality as the age and length of residence in the North increase. A positive correlation has been established between the body fat content and the length of residence in the Far North. The study has identified an increase in the visceral fat content and the body mass index depending on the increase in age and length of residence in the North. It was found that women born in the North had the lowest frequency of deviations from the normal body mass index. It was also revealed that with the increase of the age and length of residence in the North for more than 11 years the deviation of the body mass index increases. Bone mass indexes were normal in all groups with the exception of the women engineers born in the North. However, the maximum level of bone mass was registered in the group of women living in the North for 11-20 years on average. When assessing the quality of life of the employees born and living in the North no more than 10 years, it was revealed that they had better physical health. At the same time, women aged 36-60 had better mental health than women aged 21-35 which is due to their emotional state. The deterioration of their physical health testifies to the employees fatigue and decreased vitality.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):88-95
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PREVALENCE OF TYPE D PERSONALITY AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
Gorshkov-Cantacuzene V.A., Grigorev A.A.
Abstract
The paper studies type D personality (distress type) characterized by a tendency to negative emotions with simultaneous suppression of their manifestations in social interaction in undergraduate students of the first and second years of technical, humanitarian and medical specialties of higher educational institutions of Russia. This personality type adversely affects the number of cardiovascular events and the prognosis for the course of cardiovascular diseases, e.g. it is one of the mechanisms of the unfavorable prognosis for the development of multifocal atherosclerosis in patients with ischemic heart disease. Psychophysiological and behavioral factors are put forward among the possible causes of the adverse influence of the type D personality on the disease prognosis. Three groups (200 people in each) of undergraduate students of the first and second years of technical, humanitarian and medical specialties of higher educational institutions of Russia were examined. Prevalence rate of distress was observed among the students of technical specialties (47.5%), students of medical specialties had middle degree distress (22%) and students of humanitarian specialties had low degree distress (7%). Type D personality was found in almost half of the students of technical specialties, as for the students of medical and humanitarian specialties it was found in less than a quarter of the respondents. Such high rates for students of technical specialties can be linked with high study loads during their training. However, the low rates for students of medical specialties can testify to personality traits of the students. At the same time, among the study participants there were first and second year students that is those who only started their career development and did not undergo any professional deformation, This suggests that there is a connection between type D personality and the choice of a profession. The obtained results can become a tool for revealing a student's predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (for example, at a dispensary screening), and also to help the applicant with the choice of the future specialty.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):96-99
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INFLUENCE OF HEMISPHERIC NATURE OF THE BRAIN ON THE ADAPTATION OF NORTHERN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
Pogonysheva I.A., Pogonyshev D.A.
Abstract
The article presents the results of a study of the lateral asymmetry profile in students of a northern university and the assessment of the influence of hemispheric brain structure on students adaptation processes. In order to determine the type of functional interhemispheric asymmetry, the «Aktivatsiometr AC-6» system was used. 222 students of Nizhnevartovsk State University participated in the study. The study revealed that most of the young people are left brain dominant, while only 22,5% of them are right brain dominant. There were no statistically significant gender differences in the structure of interhemispheric interactions. An increase in the number of students with a satisfactory level of adaptation among those with right brain dominance points to a more effective adaptation in comparison with «left-brain» boys and girls. Decrease of the functional activity of the right hemisphere among students living and studying in the north is an additional risk factor for maladaptation.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):100-104
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ECOLOGICAL POTENTIAL AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF FOREST AREAS OF BAITUGAN OIL FIELD IN ORENBURG REGION
Rjabukhina M.V., Filippova A.V., Maiski R.A.
Abstract
Ecological potential of forests is assessed as the efficiency of basic ecological functions implementation by forest-forming plant species. Forests perform a primary ecological role in carbon dioxide sequestration in the areas with intensive industrial development particularly in the areas of oil and gas production and transportation of oil and oil products. At present, as a result of the significant increase in air pollution by carbon oxides, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, benz(a)pyrene and other substances, the issues of comprehensive studies of the sorbing and sequestring functions of forests are developing more and more. Taking into account the increased level of aerial technogenic impact on forest communities of natural and artificial origin in the area of Baitugan oilfield, it becomes important to study the volumes of carbon sequestration by trees and shrubs. The task of the work was to assess the environmental impact on the forest communities, make a forecast and work out effective mechanisms for preservation and enhancing of forest vegetation resilience with the aim of minimizing aerial technogenic pollution of natural environment. To assess the ecological potential of the forest sites, the authors estimated the total trees and shrubs phytomass stocks and classified the woodlands in accordance with the major forest-forming species and age groups of trees in the study area. The annual increase in the stock of phytomass of tree and shrubby species and the annual stocks of deposited carbon have been estimated.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):105-110
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ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS BIODEGRADATION
Belik E.S., Rudakova L.V., Kulikova Y.V., Burmistrova M.V., Slyusar N.N.
Abstract
Annually, the volume of production and application of polymeric composite materials (PCM) in various sectors of the national economy is increasing substantially, this will ultimately lead to the emergence of an ecological problem i.e. composite waste disposal. One of the solutions to this problem is the creation of polymer composite materials with a fixed service life and the ability to maintain performance properties during the period of their use, with subsequent destruction in the environment without formation of toxic substances. In special literature there is lack of data concerning evaluation of composite materials biodegradation process in the natural environment, that is why any research in this field is an urgent environmental problem. The aim of the work was to assess the possibility of biological degradation of polymer composite materials. The paper presents an analysis of methods for assessment of the biological degradation of polymeric composite materials. On the basis of the analysis the authors have chosen the method described in GOST 9.049-91 «Unified System for Protection against Corrosion and Aging (ESPC). Polymer materials and their components. Laboratory test methods for resistance to the impact of mold fungi». Studies were conducted on glass fiber polymers (AG-4V and DSV), organic fiber polymer (OP-ZhA) and carbon fiber polymers (UP-Ural-Tr-SF, UTZF2UMN, EPAN-2B), which have a wide application in the aircraft industry. As a result of the studies, microscopic Aspergillus niger , Penicillium sp . and Paecilomyces sp. fungi, were dicovered in oil contaminated soills. The fungi are the main biodecomposer of polymeric composite materials, In order to assess the biodegradation of composite materials, the samples were infected with spores of mold fungus cultures in accordance with GOST 9.049-91. At the end of the incubation period (28 days), it was found that all polymeric composite materials can be used as a food source for microscopic fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp ., although these samples are fungi-resistant to the growth of Paecilomyces sp . Micromycete. In the experiment, the composites samples were constantly in the conditions of high humidity and high temperature. High water absorption rates of UE-Ural-Tr-SF and UTZF2UMN materials can increase bioavailability for microorganisms and, as a result, provide more intensive biodegradation of materials.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):111-118
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EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS SALTS ON THE PROLLIN SYNTHESIS IN LEMNA MINOR L
Morozova M.E., Storchak T.V.
Abstract
Assessment of the level of water pollution is an important component of pollution monitoring. Rivers are polluted by sewage from enterprises and it is often difficult to assess the level of pollution and toxicity of the surface waters. Usually chemical methods of research are time-consuming and expensive. Methods of biotesting and bioindication can give a quick and accurate answer about the toxicity of waters. Nowadays, integrated methods are needed to assess the level of water pollution and water toxicity, especially in regions with a well-developed industry, where there are rivers that experience anthropogenic pollution. In many researches special attention is given to the study of low-molecular antioxidants as biochemical indicators of environmental pollution as well as biomarkers of the physiological condition of the plants growing under stressful environmental conditions. Lemna minor is an interesting plant which is available as a bioassay. It is widely spread, can be easily cultivated and is sensitive to contamination by heavy metals. The purpose of the work was to identify the specific effects of heavy metal salts (Zn, Cd, Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Sr) on the Lemna minor L. culture in order to assess the possibility of using Lemna minor as a bioassay.The duckweed plants were grown on Steinberg nutrient medium. Lemna minor was grown in heavy metal solutions of different concentrations (0.05; 0.5; 5.0 and 25 μM/l) in three biological replications. Сontent of free proline in plants was determined with acid ninhydrin reagent by Bates' method. (Bates et al., 1973). It has been established that heavy metals concentration of 0,05 to 0,5 and 5 µmol/l gradually increases the concentration of proline in leaves. While the concentration of metals of 25 µmol/l causes drastic increase of proline content in Lemna minor plants. Concentration of proline in the plants grown in the solutions containing 0,05 µmol/l of cadmium and strontium surpassed the control option. The highest content of proline was observed in plants under the concentration of 5 µmol/l for nickel, zinc and strontium. The concentration of metal ions 25 μmol/l gave a high content of proline in plants cultivating in solutions with cobalt, strontium, copper and nickel. The results of the researches give grounds to recommend Lemna minor as a test organism, using proline content as a biomarker of the physiological state of plants.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):119-124
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PULSING MOSAIC OF SOILS IN THE SOUTHERN TRANSURAL REGION
Mavletovа-Chistuakovа M.V., Scherbakov A.V., Ivanov V.B., Yumagulova E.R., Usmanov I.Y.
Abstract
The authors have studied the space and time changes variability of chemical elements concentration in different landscapes of the Southern Transurals. The results show that all the studied elements and their compounds demonstrate a lot of changes in concentration in all types of tests and observations.Calcium content in the soil samples varied up to 12.7 times, titanium and zinc content up to 10.7 times and that of ferrous oxide up to 28.7.Another outcome of the study is the discovery of weak and unstable correlations between variability series of different elements. Only 7% of correlations between the contents of main heavy metals were detected in the root layer of leached chernozems. Weak correlation of soil limits implies that any combination of the limits can be formed in the soil. Differently directed mechanisms of redistribution of soil elements demonstrate signs of stochastic process. It is possible to make a conclusion that biogeochemical mosaic forms in ecologically similar landscapes and soil conditions. It is defined by stochastic processes of redistribution and movement of chemical elements. Habitat of certain plants can be considered as a unique individual multidimensional pulsating plants niche.
Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2017;(4):124-133
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