No 3 (2021)

Cover Page

Full Issue

Всеобщая история

Historical memory and european regionalism: the scottish case

Kozlova D.A.


The region's past together with the historical memory of the people inhabiting it, undoubtedly carries lessons for the present and the future, both for the British state in particular, and for the rest of Europe as a whole. Studying the issues of historical memory helps to rethink the mechanisms of the formation of historical consciousness. It is also important when studying the role of various social strata in this process, which can include both professional historians and politicians, ‘decision makers’ – people on whom decision-making process depends to one degree or another. Among the set of functions that historical knowledge performs, the most significant one can be singled out – an attempt to "reconcile" the present and the past of the people as a nation. In the light of the current European agenda, a change in ideas about the status of historical memory and a searching of approaches to understanding the issues raised by the regionalization processes require a new look at the process of interaction between these spheres of public life. This article examines the issues of Scottish historical memory in the context of regionalization processes in Europe: what in this case is the history of Scotland – rather a common European tradition or a particular British case? Is it possible to look at the problem differently when both paths are not mutually exclusive?

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):6-13
pages 6-13 views

“Letters from the trans-ural steppe” by Sultan Mendali Piraliev: an unofficial point of view of a russian official on imperial policy in Kazakhstan

Svetlana G.V.


The article is devoted to the analysis of V. V. Grigoriev's views on Russian policy in the Kazakh Hordes. The interrelations with the Central Asia was not the primary one in the foreign policy of the Russian Empire in the 18th – first half of the 19th centuries. Therefore, the central authorities entrusted managing the Kazakhs to the Orenburg governor and the Orenburg border commission. The Orenburg and Omsk officials not only implemented Russian policy in this region, but also exerted a strong influence on its formation and took part in the development of the most normative acts in the Steppe management. Therefore, the views of local officials are of interest for understanding the Central Asian policy of the Russian Empire, the peculiarities of relations with the Kazakhs and their management. V.V. Grigoriev, who held the important post of chairman of the Orenburg Border Commission, preferred to declare his position in the form of letters from the imaginary Kazakh sultan Mendali Piraliev, because thus as we can assume his ideas got more weight and he could have felt free in describing the policy of the Russian authorities in the Kazakh Hordes. This policy, according to V.V. Grigoriev, was erroneous, because it did not take into account the mentality of an Eastern person and was based not on justice, but on “excessive indulgence”. That is why the Russian administration could not cope even with the attacks of the Kazakhs on Russian villages and the border line that had been erected to separate the Kazakhs after their taking citizenship. V.V. Grigoriev, who headed the Orenburg border commission in the 50s and early 60s. XIX century, the period of the Kazakh steppe future fate determination, perhaps expected to strengthen the positions of supporters of the incorporation of Kazakhs into the general imperial political and legal space by publishing his polemical “Letters”.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):14-23
pages 14-23 views

The problem of disarmament and the attitude of austrian statesmen to it in the 1960s and 1970s

Kozyakova N.S.


The article is devoted to international security problems in the Second Austrian Republic in the 1960s and 1970s. The aim is to consider the policy of neutral Austria, which was an active struggle for the preservation and strengthening of peace in the international arena and not “flight to isolation”. The topic's relevance lies in the fact that Austria's leading interests during the period under review were to ensure that all European problems were resolved peacefully and, therefore, nuclear weapons were not placed near its borders. It has been very active in the international arena, based primarily on its own interests, and has supported the solution of such problems as ensuring European security and disarmament. The study is based on the Austrian Government's materials containing resolutions on the cessation of nuclear weapons testing. Austrian politicians recognized the importance of a peaceful solution to this problem. The author pays special attention to the German question. His decision was of great importance for Austria since the country's vital interests demanded that a new hotbed of danger should not arise on its borders in the center of Europe. Until 1966, the Austrian Government had not expressed its attitude to ensuring European security while referencing the country's neutrality. In conclusion, it is noted that Austria, as a neutral country, could not be isolated from the initiatives of the socialist camp countries on security and cooperation at the Pan-European conference in connection with the emerging trends in the second half of the 1960s to defuse tensions.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):24-33
pages 24-33 views

Urban realm and temple construction of the russian orthodox church on the cusp of 19th and 20th centuries (based on photographic documents of kostanay city)

Nurbayev Z.Y., Nurbayeva S.B.


The article is devoted to considering “church construction” on the territory of Kostanay city, which broadly speaking includes building of churches, church government, and administrative organization. The investigations have led to a conclusion that the main factors contributing to soaring church construction in rapidly growing Kostanay city on the cusp of 19th and 20th centuries were active migration processes resulting in movement of significant number of orthodox people from European part of Russia, as well as development of missionary activities among native population. On the basis of photographic documents, the authors have characterized orthodox temple architecture, as well as subdivided churches according to “institutional principle”, composition and spatial dynamics, and style of space-planning decisions. It was found that a greater number of churches in Kostanay were the parish ones, prayer halls of temples had a single or five-domed top, the following architectural styles were distinguished in the temple construction: eclecticism, elements and techniques of provincial Baroque and classicism, national Russian style combined with the techniques of the “brick” style. Within church construction, the government was tasked with designing living environment in general, rather than religious buildings. The urban realm balanced all aspects of confessional life, included its physical, functional_ pragmatic, social, as well as emotional and artistic parameters. After Orthodox temples were built and given certain functions, there were changes in the social structure of the society, the parish was growing, the number of priests was increasing, which led to changes in the urban realm. The environment is connected with the main elements of the urban system, having stability and variability, respectively, which resulted in a set of individual and collective creative acts. The Russian Orthodox Church had a great influence on education and the moral state of urban dwellers. A network of parochial schools was formed at each church and each temple. Such schools pursued not only educational, but also missionary goals.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):34-46
pages 34-46 views

Отечественная история

On the formation of the phenomenon of the power of the moscow dynasty through the prism of historical anthropology (late 14th – first half of the 15th centuries)

Shevchenko M.N.


The article is devoted to the study of the problem of the formation of the ideology of the Moscow principality. The purpose of this study is to identify the ideological origins and features of the formation of the ideology of the rule of the Moscow sovereigns at the end of the XIV – the first half of the XV centuries. To achieve this goal, the historian, firstly, draws on a wide range of sources, which will demonstrate the scale of changes in the theoretical foundations and ways of representing the power of the Moscow princes; secondly, the author took the principles of studying the phenomenon of power formulated by representatives of the Russian direction of historical anthropology as the basis for the research program of this article. Using the advantages of the existing approach, the researcher determined which ideas, images, forms and mechanisms were used to consolidate in the minds of contemporaries new ideas about the constantly expanding powers of power of the Moscow princes. The article concludes that the created great-power image of the Moscow rulers laid the ideological foundation for the growth of the political power of the Moscow principality.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):47-60
pages 47-60 views

Cooperation B.V. Klyuchevsky with S.F. Platonov on the distribution of his father's work

Mitrofanov V.V.


Much of S.F. Platonov's organizational work remains unknown. The revealed archival materials in his personal fund allow us to expand our understanding of his personal interest in providing the students of the Women's Pedagogical Institute, where he was the director, with the best scientific literature. The director's hand-drawn rough sketches provide an insight into the extent of his collaboration and informal relationships with his female students. The office materials introduced into scientific circulation for the first time give an idea of the unknown side of the activity of B.V. Klyuchevsky – the son of the great historian. In historiography, the opinion has been established that he mainly performed the duties of secretary to his father. The researchers ' interest in the tragic fate of the only child of V.O. Klyuchevsky began to manifest itself recently. He was not spared the fate of a prisoner exiled to Kazakhstan. Previously unknown, his work in the warehouse of V.O. Klyuchevsky's printed products allows him to open a new page of his studies. Despite a certain dryness of office materials (receipts of postal orders, forms, invoices), they in this case allow us to analyze the functioning of the warehouse for the distribution of V.O. Klyuchevsky's works, to find out the scale of trade. Some inaccuracies established in historiography concerning the facts from the life of S.F. Platonov and B.V. Klyuchevsky are corrected

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):61-71
pages 61-71 views

Contributions of service men and clerks of western siberia in the second half of the XVII – beginning of the XVIII centuries (based on the materials of the contribution books of the dalmatian assumption monastery)

Sukhanov A.S.


The article deals with the contributions of servants and clerks of Western Siberia in the second half of the XVII – early XVIII centuries based on the materials of two contribution books of the Dalmatov Assumption Monastery. These books were described and preserved by V.P. Biryukov and introduced into scientific circulation by I.L. Mankova. The purpose of the article is to analyze the contributions of service corporations, as well as to determine their number among the population of the region. Based on the analysis, the table lists the main categories of the military and military population of the region and their families. A total of 126 entries were recorded, out of more than 1300 contributors. The article traces the fate of the noble and non-noble representatives of these social groups and their role in the development of Western Siberia. The article also examines the military and political processes that took place in the Moscow state and were reflected in the contributions of this population group. The article deals with the service of the boyar children in Siberia, the dragoon reform of the Tobolsk voivode P. I. Godunov, the role of the Slobodchiks and the White Local Cossacks in consolidating the region as part of the state. In addition to these categories, among the contributions of service people are mentioned collars, gyrfalcon pomykalschiki, coachmen, blacksmiths and others. The article also shows the social changes that took place within the service population of the region.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):72-83
pages 72-83 views

The russian army in siberia in the 30–50 years of the XVIII century

Puzanov V.D.


The reforms of Peter I became the basis for the gradual restructuring of all the military forces of Siberia. The main role in the Russian military cavalry of the Peter's era was played by dragoons. Under Peter I, dragoon regiments were the only type of Russian regular cavalry. In the field army, Peter I ordered the formation of 34 dragoon regiments. In addition, garrison dragoon regiments were formed in the province in the strategically important cities of Azov, Astrakhan, Kazan, and Tobolsk. In the 30–50s of the XVIII century, the number of field dragoon regiments of the Russian Empire decreased to 20. In 1744, 3 field dragoon regiments Olonetsky, Vologda and Lutsk, and 2 field infantry regiments Shirvan and Nasheburg were sent to Siberia to protect the region from the Dzungars. By the decree of the Senate of September 29, 1744, all the Russian troops of Siberia were subordinated to the chief commander of the Siberian Corps, who was subordinate to the Military College. Major-General Christian Kinderman was appointed the main commander in Siberia. In March 1756, the Russian army consisted of 3 cuirassiers, 29 dragoons, and 46 infantry regiments, totaling 78 army regiments, with 172,440 men. As a result, during the Seven Years ' War, the number of field dragoon units in Russia decreased by 3 times and by 1763 was only 7 regiments. As a result, if in 1754 the dragoons were 36,627 people (92.6 %), then by 1767 there were only 4,802 people (12.8%) from the Russian cavalry in their ranks.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):84-95
pages 84-95 views

The trends in the formation of the elite of the merchant class of tobolsk province (the last quarter of the XVIII – first quarter of the XIX centuries)

Zadorozhnyaya O.A.


Merchants as the main subject of the business world of the Russian state in the last quarter of the 18th – first part of the 19th centuries. was distinguished by ambiguity: on the one hand, its social status corresponded to national legislation, on the other hand, it was distinguished by regional characteristics. The subject of the research is the social gradation and the identification of the leading group of the merchant class of the Tobolsk province in the last quarter of the 18th – first part of the 19th centuries: determining the principles of its separation and existence. The purpose of the article is to highlight the features of the group of hereditary merchants as the leading sub-class of the Tobolsk province (last quarter of the 18th – first quarter of the 19th centuries) Methods. In preparing this work, we developed a research algorithm, which consisted in determining the total number of the merchant class of the Tobolsk province (610 separate surnames), which were divided using the historical-comparative method and the modeling method into separate social subgroups. Results: the research illustrates the heterogeneity of the guild merchants of the cities of the Tobolsk province in the last quarter of the 18th – first part of the 19th centuries. as a participant in the business world of Western Siberia. Conclusions: There is traced the dependence of the social status of the merchant not so much on the size of the capital, but on the length of stay in the hereditary merchant. The Siberian merchant was distinguished in many ways by his isolation and practicality during his stay in the guild organization. At the same time, representatives of the leading sub-class preferred transit trade on the border with China or at all-Russian fairs. In this case, the merchant must be known both in his hometown and abroad for his commercial and social activities. Considering that the capital belonged to a merchant family, therefore, its members were distributed among various fields of activity. Thus, the trading class of the Tobolsk province had many common features, but due to internal gradation it was distinguished by fluidity, a clear division of responsibilities, and capital differentiation. Hereditary merchants represented a separate social subgroup, in which «the title of merchant ... was preferred to everything in the world».

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):96-105
pages 96-105 views

Transformation of the image of the nazi regime in the soviet propaganda (23 august 1939 – june 1941): a source study aspect

Eremin S.V.


The article, based on a wide range of historical sources, examines the key events associated with changes in the coverage of the Nazi regime by Soviet propaganda bodies in connection with the signing of the Soviet-German treaties: on non-aggression (August 1939), on friendship and the border (September 1939 g.). It is noted that both sides tried to find common ground on a number of secondary, "peripheral" issues, that the turn in Soviet propaganda, which began in August 1939, gave an impetus to create a positive cultural image of the former enemy. However, for reasons, primarily of an ideological nature, it was not possible to fully use the expected advantages from this political rapprochement in order to develop cultural ties. The reasons for the unsuccessful attempt at “cultural rapprochement” between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich are analyzed. It points to the attempts of the Soviet leadership to study the experience of propaganda work in Germany with a view to further use. It is noted that, starting in the summer of 1940, in the conditions of a gradual deterioration in Soviet-German relations, the nature of the activities of propaganda structures is gradually changing. Increasingly, criticism of the Nazi regime is voiced in a veiled form. It is shown that in May – June 1941, a new anti-Nazi turn in Soviet propaganda took place. It is concluded that if during the warming of relations with Germany in Soviet propaganda the class paradigm was temporarily replaced by a national or cultural-historical one, then the political and ideological campaign that unfolded in May-June 1941 had a clearly anti-German and anti-Nazi character.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2021;55(3):106-119
pages 106-119 views

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