No 1 (2023)

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Всеобщая история

Who was Ablavius, first historian of goths?

Butsy V.N.


This paper discusses the main versions of the origin of Ablavius, the author of the history of the Goths, and puts forward his own hypothesis of correspondence between the writer and the historical figure. It is noted that the question of the personality and nature of the activity of the historian Ablavius is still debatable, since we know about his existence only from quotes in the Getica, a text of Jordanes of the 6th century. A wide range of main versions of its origin, which have been proposed by various researchers since the Renaissance, has been studied. It is indicated that there is no single version of his origin, opinions are expressed that Ablavius could be a historian, geographer, bishop or prefect. Analysis of references to Ablavius in Jordanes made it possible to determine what information could be borrowed from the work of this author. The historical figures with the name Ablavius and the reasons that could prompt them to write a text dedicated to the Goths are considered. A version is proposed that the historian Ablavius and prefect Ablavius could be one and the same person, and an idea is expressed about the nature of his work, such as a short narrative describing the life and history of the Transdanubian barbarians and dedicated, first of all, to the victory of Emperor Constantine over the Goths and Sarmatians.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):4-13
pages 4-13 views

The animal kingdom in the picture of world by Philostorgius

Zibaev A.V.


The article examines the place of the animal world in the picture of the world by Philostorgius. Being a prominent representative of the Alexandrian school and the heretical church historiography of the IV-V cent. AD, he approached this issue much more seriously, paying attention to the symbolism due to the appearance and relationship of a person with one or another biological species. All this correlates with the methods of biological descriptions in antiquity, some of which are also used by modern biologists. Careful handling of the biological terminology of Aristotle and Pliny is noticeable in the use of such a key concept of the Philostorgian worldview as φύσις.Regarding animals, he uses this word in the sense of gender, which successfully correlates with Aristotle's “History of Animals”. It is concluded that the descriptions of animals in the “Ecclesiastical History” is an imitation of “Natural History” by Pliny the Elder and “History of Animals” by Aristotle. Trying to follow, on the one hand, Polybius in covering the political events of the Roman Empire; on the other hand, Eusebius of Caesarea in a story about the religious struggle between currents in Christianity, Judaism and pagan cults; Aristotle and Pliny the Elder, in an effort to represent the entire cosmos from Paradise and heaven, to the depths of the earth and Hell, Philostorgius created a religious and political work with elements of scientific descriptions, intended for an educated reader and aiming to educate a citizen of Rome, a diversified Eunomian.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):14-25
pages 14-25 views

Отечественная история

Residents of provincial regions in divorce proceedings with adulterous husbands in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries

Vanyushina O.V., Krivosheeva Y.A., Spichak A.V.


The aim of the study was to study the peculiarities of the divorce process of women with adulterers both in the central dioceses and on the periphery in the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries. The results of the study of the issue as a result of the analysis of cases of divorce by the Tver, Yaroslavl and Tobolsk spiritual consistories are presented. Particular attention is paid to the forms of male adultery that existed at that time and the dependence of the probability of ending the case in divorce on their severity. It was found that it was easiest to obtain permission for a divorce if there were witnesses who had the opportunity to confirm the husband's family relationship with another woman, and moreover, the birth of an illegitimate child with them. The article presents the stages of the divorce process due to male adultery, the main categories of terms for solving such cases. The hypothesis was confirmed that it was more difficult for peasant women than for representatives of other classes to get a divorce from a traitor husband, this was hampered by both low literacy and ignorance of the laws, and fear of consequences from her husband, and over time their literacy increased, and patriarchal views remained in early 20th century Of the cases examined, only in those related to peasant divorces did the spouses agree to reconcile, peasant cases almost never ended in divorce. Differences in motives are also interesting: for peasant women, the primary desire, even a necessity, was to enter into a new marriage in order to find a master, breadwinner and assistant in the house, for other estates, divorce was the motive, since treason was considered an “insult”.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):26-36
pages 26-36 views

Everyday life of Omsk at the beginning of the twentieth century on the pages of local periodicals

Germizeeva V.V., Glazunova T.V.


The article presents the characteristics of the everyday life of the city of Omsk in the early twentieth century. based on publications in local periodicals in 1907-1914. The Omsk Telegraph and Omsk Bulletin newspapers, which were popular among the population and became a kind of tool for forming public opinion, were used as a historical source in the work. The use of the problem-chronological method made it possible to identify and consider the characteristic features of everyday life through the prism of periodicals. The comparative-historical method was used to compare newspaper materials on a specific problem. As a result, the authors have identified the main directions of everyday life of citizens, which were most widely reflected in publications during the period under study. These are issues of improvement of the city, sanitary and epidemiological condition, construction of water supply, cultural and entertainment sphere, information about various incidents. The information presented in the notes, feuilletons and journalistic articles gave a comprehensive description of the reality that took place. The study based on the materials of the periodical press shows the participation of urban residents in charitable and educational activities. It is noted that most of the publications are presented in the form of notes containing brief information without any analysis of events. Nevertheless, the regional periodical press as a historical source has a great informational potential for studying everyday life. The authors note the importance of the integrated use of newspapers, official documents, memoirs and letters in order to fully immerse themselves in the atmosphere of the early twentieth century and to create a vivid image of the city with its problems and achievements in various fields.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):37-46
pages 37-46 views

“The Tobolsk Diocesan Gazette” as a source for the history of social welfare and charity of the Russian Orthodox Church, 1882-1905

Kruglikov A.S.


The article considers the possibility of using a periodical printed edition as a source on the history of social security and charity of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1882-1905 using the analysis of publications in the Tobolsk Diocesan Vedomosti as an example. It is noted that the issues of charity and social security were covered in the “Tobolsk Diocesan Gazette” in two planes: the propaedeutic building and information materials about the life and activities of diocesan, parish and corporate charitable organizations. The propaedeutic corps actualized these areas of activity of the diocesan leadership and clergy through sermons, announcements and appeals, was mainly placed in the unofficial part of the publication and was often full of “emotional statements”. Information materials about the life and activities of diocesan, parish and corporate charitable organizations are posted in the official section and have a clear structure. The conclusion is made about the uniqueness of the “Tobolsk Diocesan Gazette” as a source containing a wide range of diverse information on the history of social security and charity of the Russian Orthodox Church of the specified period.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):47-59
pages 47-59 views

Improvement of the organization and content of Palestinian readings by the diocesal departments of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society at the beginning of the XX century

Tsys V.V., Tsys O.P.


The article deals with the issues of improving the organization and content of the Palestinian readings, held by the diocesan departments of the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian Society in the early twentieth century. The directions of the relevant changes are identified, which include: the creation of special commissions that coordinated the activities of conducting readings, attempts to form mobile groups for readings in rural areas, the use of visualization tools (“magic lanterns and “foggy pictures” for them), joint singing or performance musical works by an invited choir, demonstration of objects brought from the Holy Land (icons, stones, palm branches, shells, etc.) and, in some cases, distribution of pieces of earth and water from the Jordan River brought from Palestine. Informing about upcoming readings was carried out by publishing advertisements in newspapers, posting posters, orally in a church or educational institution, as well as striking a church bell. It is concluded that despite a number of successes in improving the content and organization of the Palestinian readings, the gradual accumulation of experience in their conduct, nevertheless, interesting findings, techniques proposed and put into practice by various diocesan departments were not analyzed and generalized, did not become the subject of general attention and replication, which served as a deterrent to the further growth of their popularity.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):60-67
pages 60-67 views

Corporal images of humanized space of the indigenous peoples of Yugra

Ershov М.F.


The problem of a person's perception of himself in the world has always been socially significant. Studies of the history of ideas about space are most significant for our vast Russia. The processes of their formation are associated with both ancient and modern times. The objective of the publication is to analyze the mental modeling of space as a kind of corpora in the traditional culture of the indigenous peoples of Yugra. To achieve it, it is necessary to resolve the following tasks: to consider the aspects of mutual evolution of the images of human corporality and the outside world among the Ob-Ugric peoples of Yugra on the basis of a preliminary reconstruction of the causes of the emergence of corporal representations in antiquity. The methodological basis of the study is an interdisciplinary approach using a number of theoretical provisions of anthropology. According to these provisions, in the processes of anthropogenesis our ancestors were able to adapt to the external environment through corporal imitation to representatives of the animal world. In turn, the naive zoomorphism of man was mentally supplemented by the anthropomorphism of the surrounding world.

Ethnographic materials on the traditional culture of the peoples of Yugra testify that the properties of the human body were mentally transferred to the natural world and then to social relations. The transfer was carried out through myths. The obtained results prove the inconsistency and ambiguity of the interaction of corporal images, objects of nature and mythical characters of the Ob-Ugric folklore. We assume that the direction of further research will be related to the consideration of the specifics of the historical and cultural evolution of the images of the social corpora in the humanized space of outlying lands, among which Yugra can be attributed.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):68-75
pages 68-75 views

Peasant committees of public mutual assistance of the Kuznetsk district in 1922-1932

Morozov N.M.


The article is devoted to the current and littlestudied problem of the activities of the crusades in the Kuznetscom district. With the involvement of documents of the regional archive, the author traces the process of renewal and development of peasant committees of public mutual assistance in the prefarm de reven, determines the role of local party bodies, district and district social welfare departments and district committees of public mutual assistance in organizing the internal life of peasant committees. The categories of recipients of social assistance of the poor peasantry were identified: former Red Army soldiers and Red partisans, disabled and victims of white terror, Red Army families, widows and orphans, Labor soldiers, sick and old who were in material need. The main sources of social power were identified, these are: membership fees; funds of peasant mutual assistance committees, which were replenished by obtaining orphan property, voluntary collection of donations, self-maintenance of their members according to the approved norm from tithing, funds from the sale of crops collected from public farms. Labor assistance to large widows was reduced to you-bringing firewood, hay, spring plowing and other hard work.

It was established that in the second half of the 1920s. with the development of free trade, the economic activity of rural mutual assistance societies increased, covering about 50% Crean households, including part of the middle peasants. Their activities became more diverse and were aimed at increasing public supply, organizing joint ventures (mills, rental of agricultural equipment, etc.). The expansion of the possibility of labor cooperation was facilitated by the exemption of peasant committees from taxes and fees, and the provision of loans. The general problem was the extremely unsatisfactory failure by the apparatus of the district and village councils to meet the needs of peasant committees. During the period of mass collectivization, their land and seed funds provided significant material assistance for the economic formation of collective farms.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):76-83
pages 76-83 views

Violations in the food sphere in the Vladimir region during the Great Patriotic War

Tryakhov I.S.


The article discusses violations in the food sector during the Great Patriotic War on the example of the Vladimir region. During the Great Patriotic War in connection with the loss in 1941–1942. The Red Army of the vast territories has developed an acute shortage of food, a result of which was the half -starred existence of a significant mass of the population of the rear. For the urban population, the supply system was installed. The main attention is paid to the analysis of deficiencies in food supply, as well as crimes in this area. The access of individuals to a scarce product stacked the basis for various violations in the field of food supply, the main of which was speculation and illegal spending of cards. The analysis of available sources created by the city party committees of the Vladimir region shows that the effectiveness of counteracting violations in the food sector from law enforcement agencies was not effective. On this negative side of their work, they repeatedly paid attention to the meetings and plenums of the city committees of different cities of the region. Cases of food embezzlement were ambiguous in nature, and if fraud with coupons and theft of products by managers and warehouse workers were mainly to cash in on the troubles of fellow citizens, then the theft of products by minors and military were explained by their half -starved existence. The author came to the conclusion that a number of problems that took place in the field of food support were systemic and during the war it was not possible to get rid of them. Despite the formally strict legislation, there were a significant number of cases of criminal crimes in the entire length of the war regarding the plotting of food products.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):84-95
pages 84-95 views

The bridge head of “big oil”: the first settlement of geological explorers in Surgut

Rashevsky V.V.


The article considers the process of formation of the first settlement of prospectors who arrived in Surgut in 1957 to organize oil exploration. Special attention is paid to the creation of industrial and settlement infrastructure based on the memoirs of “shadow actors” collected by the author – direct participants in the events, newspaper publications and archival materials. The importance of the first settlement of geologists is noted as the main springboard for future geological exploration in one of the promising oil areas of the Middle Ob region. The author notes that the infrastructure of the exploration village was compactly created in close proximity to the main life support facilities of the Surgut district center. This circumstance made it possible to compensate for the difficulties that arose as a result of the unsettled nature of geologists. A positive aspect was the proximity of the village to the main transport hub – the Ob River. This ensured the successful construction of transport logistics with other settlements in the region and the main base of the expedition, located in Novosibirsk. This circumstance in subsequent years made it possible to organize oil prospecting operations in the districts adjacent to Surgut, where separate parties of geologists were located. The bridgehead of the Surgut oil exploration expedition became the main resource center, where the material and technical arsenal for the rest of the geological units of the region, required for the search and discovery of the first oil fields, was accumulated and distributed.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):96-105
pages 96-105 views

Activities of cultural and educational institutions of the Khanty-Mansiysk National District in the 50s of the XX century

Rashevskaya N.N.


The article is devoted to the study of the activities of cultural and educational institutions of the Khanty-Mansiysk National Okrug in the 1950s, which is not sufficiently covered in Russian historiography. The relevance of the study is explained by the need to fill this gap based on the analysis of different types of sources. The source base for the study was the materials of the district newspapers "Stalinskaya tribune" and "Leninskaya Pravda", as well as unpublished archival materials introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The work of red tents, red boats, cultural bases, clubs, cinemas, museums, libraries is covered. It is concluded that the areas of activity of cultural and educational institutions in the district were quite diverse, and work with the indigenous population was not limited to education. The factors that negatively influenced the development of cultural and educational activities in the district included the low material and technical base of institutions, the lack of qualified personnel, the remoteness of settlements from each other, and problems with electricity. Cultural institutions had limited resources to organize a full-fledged leisure of the population.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):106-115
pages 106-115 views

«Srednee Priob'e» vs «Sibirskogo Priural'ya» (oil prospecting in the Khanty-Mansiysk National District in the 1950s)

Komgort M.V., Karpov V.P.


The article analyzes the strategy of prospecting and exploration works on the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk National Okrug in the 1950s, on the eve of the era of "great geological discoveries". The factors that determined the long-term localization of oil prospecting on the periphery of the West Siberian Lowland, in the Siberian Cis-Urals, after the discovery of the Berezovsky gas (1953) and Shaimsky oil (1960) fields are revealed. It is shown how this affected the financing and scope of work of the expeditions of the Middle Ob region, which, as a result, delayed the discovery of the West Siberian oil and gas province. The data presented in the article confirm that, unlike the Tyumen Geological Administration, which was slow to enter this area, Novosibirsk geologists intensified oil prospecting in the Shirotny Ob region and, to a large extent, prepared the discovery of the Megionskoye and Ust-Balykskoye fields.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):116-125
pages 116-125 views

On the problems of commemorating signs dedicated to the family of the former Emperor Nicholas II: by the materials of the city of Tyumen

Makarova E.O.


One of the sources of the formation of historical memory are commemorative signs located in the urban landscape. The memorialization of the names of members of the Romanov family causes an ambiguous reaction in the public mind of Russians.

The official procedure for the installation of objects of monumental art on the territory of the city of Tyumen excludes the placement of commemoration signs in the presence of such a reaction from the townspeople. However, at the same time, it gives the initiators the opportunity to install objects in private and closed areas for viewing, which are not subject to the jurisdiction of city authorities. The subject of the study is the problem of commemorative signs dedicated to the family of the former Emperor Nicholas II. At the same time, objects located exclusively within the boundaries of the city of Tyumen are investigated. The purpose of the article is to identify the problems associated with the placement, promotion and preservation of these signs of commemoration. To achieve the goal, the author set the following tasks: to study the history of creation, placement and accessibility for viewing the designated objects. The methodology of the work is based on the principle of objectivity and historicism, a descriptive and comparative research method is also used. Particular attention in the course of the study is paid to determining the role of the initiators of the creation of objects. According to the results of the study, most of the signs were installed without official paperwork. The facilities are located on private or religious organization territory. This circumstance leaves an imprint on their general perception by the viewer. In turn, being in conditions that are limited for viewing, commemoration signs are inaccessible for visiting. The study of the attitude of Tyumen residents to the described objects, as well as the degree of their popularity among the townspeople, requires a separate sociological study.

Bulletin of Nizhnevartovsk State University. 2023;(1):126-135
pages 126-135 views

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